Open Access Short Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Three Selected Homegrown Vegetables Consumed in Rwanda

Habinshuti Janvier, Ingabire Ange Sabine, Uwamariya Colores, Ndayambaje Jean Bernard

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40226

This particular study is focused to the employment of herbal medicine due to the economical stringency of rural-based communities’ resort of traditional medicine such as using Moringa oleifera, Solanum nigrum and Cleome gynandra as alternative drug sources to treat microbial infections without scientific knowledge about them. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera, Solanum nigrum and Cleome gynandra extracts with their extracted herbal juice. The aqueous solution of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Moringa oleifera, Solanum nigrum and Cleome gynandra leaves can be used for antimicrobial activity of such medicinal substitutes antibiotics like erythromycin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, and ketoconazole used as controls. The extracts (0.2 mg/ml) concentrations revealed varied antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aerugenosa bacteria as well as Sacharomyces cervisiae yeast and Aspergillus fusarium mold with respect to the inhibition diameters observed and measured on the agar. The maximal antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera was observed against Staphylococcus aureus with fresh leaf aqueous extract (26.0 mm); Solanum nigrum against Escherichia coli with hexane extracts (22.0 mm), whereas the maximal antibacterial activity of Cleome gynandra was seen against Salmonella typhi with methanol extracts (19.0 mm). All the extracts from the three vegetables showed a higher antibacterial activity than the control except for Pseudomonas aerugenosa. The maximal antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera and Solanum nigrum was seen against Sacharomyces cervisiae with fresh leaf aqueous extracts (22.0 mm) while the maximal antifungal activity of Cleome gynandra was seen against Sacharomyces cervisiae with methanol extracts (21.0 mm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents of Flour and Composite Bread from African Palmyra (Borassus aethiopum) Fruit from Ghana

Marian Peprah, Charles Apprey, Christopher Larbie, Odeafo Asamoah-Boakye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40502

Aims: To explore the use of Borassus aethiopum fruit as composite flour and bread and determine the phytochemical composition in each product.

Place and Duration: Department of Biochemistry, and Department of Food science food and sensory evaluation laboratory, between September, 2016 and April, 2017.

Study Design: An experimental study.

Methods: The African palmyra fruits were obtained from Sekyere Odumase and processed into Borassus flour and composite bread. Phytochemicals constituents were determined in both products using aqueous and methanol extracts.

Results: The results of both aqueous and methanol extraction for the phytochemical testing indicated that the raw B. aethiopum powder (RBAP) contained flavonoids, saponins, phenols, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids and sterols. Borassus bread contained flavonoids, alkaloid, triterpenes, steroids and sterols in both extracts, whilst cardiac glycosides, saponins and phenols maintained their strong presence in both extracts of composite Borassus bread. Tannins were absent in both extracts of B. aethiopum powder and bread composite. Also, the total phenol content in the composite bread was lower compared with the Borassus flour (P=0.000). The total antioxidant capacity in the Borassus flour (EC50= 2.1±0.24 mg/mL) was significantly higher than the composite bread (EC50=2.24±0.4 mg/mL) (P= 0.000). However, both products had less antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid (EC50=0.12±0.2 mg/mL).

Conclusion: Both Borassus flour and composite bread had appreciable phytochemicals present, with some antioxidant capacity which could beneficially help in the management of people with chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Brewing Methods and Time on Secondary Metabolites, Total Flavonoid and Phenolic Content of Green and Roasted coffee Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Monsooned Malabar

Mansimran Kaur, Shivani Tyagi, Namrata Kundu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40565

Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora (robusta) and monsooned malabar are the three types of coffee which are well known and used by most of population in India and all over the globe. For consuming coffee various brewing methods are used worldwide, French press, Espresso, Turkish coffee, being the common. Eleven brewing methods are introduced in the paper for brewing of green coffee, some of which are common for brewing tea.

Among all the mentioned brewing methods, Decoction method showed the best results, as maximum amount of Flavonoids and Phenols were found to be present in green coffee arabica, values being 69.24 mg QE/g of coffee and 108.67 mg QE/g of coffee respectively, whereas, for robusta it was found to be 47.47 mg QE/g of coffee and 93 mg QE/g of coffee respectively. Brewing time is also considered as one of the major factors for coffee brewing, as if the time is too short, all the flavours will not dissolve and if too long, it may dissolve undesirable components as well. An increasing trend was seen in flavonoid and phenolic content in both arabica (TPC up to 84.11 mg QE/g of coffee) and robusta (TPC up to 78 mg QE/g of coffee) along with monsooned malabar (TPC up to 84.88 mg QE/g of coffee) with increase in brewing time. Another factor considered is the solvent used for brewing. A comparison was made between water and alcohol. Both the coffees, green and roasted showed a significant difference in the values when brewed in ethanol and in water.

Results indicate that the brewing methods given may be used along with a variant brewing time depending on its phenolic content. Also, green coffee can be proved a boon with more health benefits as compared to roasted one.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic-potentiation Activities of Cameroonian Medicinal Plants against Multidrug-resistant Phenotype Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates

Soupgui Franck Cedric, Kouitcheu Mabeku Laure Brigitte, Eyoum Bille Bertrand, Hubert Leundji, Tamesse Joseph Lebel, Francois-Xavier Etoa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40494

Background: Helicobacter pylori are the primary cause of peptic ulcer disease and an etiologic agent in the development of gastric cancer. The emergence of multi-drug resistant phenotypes is a major public health problem today in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter activities of six Cameroonian medicinal plants on ten Helicobacter pylori clinical isolate from dyspeptic patients and their ability to potentiate the effect of common antibiotics against multidrug-resistance phenotypes Helicobacter pylori.

Methodology: Broth microdilution assay was used for the antimicrobial evaluation of plant-extracts alone or in combination with antibiotics, while Time-kill assay was used to study the bactericidal activity.

Results: Plant-extracts showed different anti-Helicobacter activity with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varying from 64 to >1024 µg/ml. The methanol extract of E. cocaine leaves showed the best anti-Helicobacter activity with MIC value of 64 µg/ml against 60% of the tested isolate. Moreover, E. cocaine extract at a concentration equal to 8MIC, produced from 24 to 72 h a viability decrease of 2 logs lower than those for the control against the tested clinical isolates. Synergistic concentration dependent effects were observed when combining this plant extract with erythromycin, or amoxicillin against Helicobacter pylori multi-drug resistant phenotypes with minimum fold inhibition of 16 and eight respectively for erythromycin and amoxicillin.

Conclusion: The overall results provide information for the possible use of E. cocaine extract in the control of Helicobacter pylori infections involving multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Phytocomponents and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Corchorus olitorius Leaf Extract

D. Orieke, O. C. Ohaeri, I. I. Ijeh, S. N. Ijioma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/38739

In this study, the identification of secondary metabolites was carried out alongside acute toxicity evaluation on Corchorus olitorius leaf extract (COLE). Results of phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids (4.00±0.035 mg/100 g), steroids (0.89±0.031 mg/100 g), terpenes (1.27±0.016 mg/100 g), phenolic compounds (2.05±0.514 mg/100 g), alkaloids (3.10±0.026 mg/100 g), saponins (4.00±0.054 mg/100 g), tannins (0.32±0.044 mg/100 g) and cardiac glycoside (1.61±0.068 mg/100 g) while GCMS analysis of the extract showed the presence of 46 compounds with 2-Dodecenal having the highest concentration. 3-Methyl-1-penten-4-yn-3-ol, 2,4-Decadienal and Ethanone were also found in higher amounts. No toxicity behaviour and mortality were observed during the acute toxicity study period, even at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body. From results obtained, we conclude that Corchorus olitorius leaf extract may be a potential source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular system modulatory agent and may be safe for use as food and medicine.