Antiplasmodial Activity and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Stems of Albizia coriaria and Ficus sur

Kennedy Ameyaw Baah *

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical and Computational Sciences, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Akwasi Acheampong

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical and Computational Sciences, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Isaac Kingsley Amponsah

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Reinhard Isaac Nketia

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Malaria continues to cause havoc on various populations because of the high mortality and economic burden associated with the disease. Progress made in the therapeutics of the disease is threatened by the emerging parasite resistance to currently used first line treatment drugs. This has prompted the search for new, effective, and safe antimalarial agents. The use of traditional medicine in the treatment of various types of diseases including malaria is a regular practice seen with many cultures in Ghana. The stems of Albizia coriaria Welw ex. Oliver and Ficus sur Forssk are such plants used with little evidence about their in vivo efficacy.

Aim: This study therefore aimed to assess the in vivo antiplasmodial potential, and the acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic stem extract of Albizia coriaria and Ficus sur.

Method: Qualitative phytochemical screening was done on the powdered plant material using standard methods. Acute toxicity was carried out according to OECD guidelines using the Limit test. In vivo antiplasmodial activity of the hydroethanolic extract was assessed using the Peter’s 4-day suppressive and Rane’s curative test.

Results: The 70% ethanol extract was safe with the lethal dose above 3000 mg/kg. All the extracts significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed parasitaemia in the Peter’s suppressive and Rane’s curative test with Albizia coriaria producing the highest chemotherapeutic activity of 68.89 and 61.46% in the suppressive and curative test respectively. That of F. sur was less than 50% in both assays. Artesunate reference drug recorded over 80% suppression in the curative test but lesser activity in the suppression assay compared to A. coriaria. Several plant metabolites including terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins were found in both plant samples.

Conclusion: Albizia coriaria and Ficus sur 70% ethanol extract showed considerable antiplasmoidal activity and were found to be non-toxic in acute toxicity study, thus justifying their safe use in the treatment of malaria as suggested by folklore medicine.

Keywords: Antimalaria, suppressive test, phytochemicals, acute toxicity, plasmodium parasite


How to Cite

Baah , Kennedy Ameyaw, Akwasi Acheampong, Isaac Kingsley Amponsah, and Reinhard Isaac Nketia. 2024. “Antiplasmodial Activity and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Stems of Albizia Coriaria and Ficus Sur”. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 35 (2):1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2024/v35i21179.

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