Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Phytochemical Analysis of Gliricidia sepium and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts

Lidji Casilde Jessica Sintes Ruth *

Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Laboratoire Biologie et Santé, 01 BP 34 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Bolou Gbouhoury Eric-Kevin

Centre National de Floristique, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire.

Konan Gbê Kouakou N’Dri Ange

Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Laboratoire Biologie et Santé, 01 BP 34 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

N’guessan Jean David

Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, Laboratoire Biologie et Santé, 01 BP 34 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Objectives: Gliricidia sepium and Xylopia aethiopica are frequently utilized in traditional medicine in Ivory Coast. To mitigate potential risks associated with their uninformed use, it is crucial to assess their safety levels. This study was aimed at evaluating the acute toxicity and analyzing the phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts of Gliricidia sepium leaf and Xylopia aethiopica fruit.

Materials and Methods: Triphytochemistry was carried out using staining and precipitation methods. While the Metabolite determinations were conducted via spectrophotometry. The assessment of acute toxicity followed the OECD protocol 423, employing female rats of the Wistar strain.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed that Ethanolic extracts of  Xylopia aethiopica fruit (XAF)  contains 7.72% polyphenols, 4.09% alkaloids, 0.34% tannins, 0.12% saponins, and 0.001% terpenoids. In comparison, Gliricidia sepium leaf (GSL) exhibited levels of 7.49% polyphenols, 3.41% alkaloids, 0.47% tannins, 0.01% saponins, and 0.51% terpenoids. The acute toxicity study demonstrated the absence of mortality and major toxicity issues at maximum doses of 5000 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts of XAF and GSL, do not exhibit any acute toxic effect and they both contain some phytochemicals. This validates the frequent utilization and provides assurance to communities usings these plants.

Keywords: Gliricidia sepium, Xylopia aethiopica, phytochemical, acute toxicity


How to Cite

Ruth, Lidji Casilde Jessica Sintes, Bolou Gbouhoury Eric-Kevin, Konan Gbê Kouakou N’Dri Ange, and N’guessan Jean David. 2023. “Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Phytochemical Analysis of Gliricidia Sepium and Xylopia Aethiopica Extracts”. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 34 (11):1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2023/v34i111166.

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