Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Extraction Methods (Steam Distillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction) on Essential Oil Production of Aromatic Tagetes and Sweet Basil

Zeinab A. Abd Elhafez

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2022/v33i630468

Tagetes minuta L. (Aromatic Tagetes) is an erect and stout summer annual herb. Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil) is considered a summer aromatic plant. There are several methods for extraction of essential oils i.e. (HD) hydro-distillation, (SD) steam distillation, (SFE) supercritical fluid extraction, and organic solvents. It is now considered the method of extracting essential oil with steam distillation is the commercial method used in many countries that produce essential oils. SFE method consider is the latest extracting essential oils method but the method spread is limited due to the high cost of its establishment. The present study is aimed to compare the two methods SD and SFE to extract the essential oil from sweet basil and aromatic tagetes plants, and its yield on the resulting essential oil yield. SFE method increases oil yield and improves oil quality. SFE method gave a high percentage of the following major’s components for sweet basil oil (linalool (50.22%) and E- Citral (10.44%)) and aromatic tagetes oil ( β-Ocimene (27.49%) and cis-Tagetone (9.93%)) compared to the steam distillation method.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Comparative Effects of Vitamin E + C on the Chronic Toxicity of Paraquat in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Okolonkwo, Benjamin Nnamdi, Amadi, Chikadibia Fyneface, Chukwubike, Udoka Okeke, Nyenke, Clement Ugochukwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2022/v33i630469

Paraquat is a highly toxic chemical used in weed control. Paraquat is known for its ability to generate reactive oxygen species that attack cells and membranes. Vitamin E is a group of vitamins which dissolves in fat and possess antioxidant properties which act as a defense to the cells against oxidative stress arising from reactive oxygen species, whereas Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin and a very potent antioxidant which protects the cells of the body from free radicals. The study aim was to evaluate the ameliorative effects of a combination therapy of vitamin E and C on biochemical markers of paraquat induced male albino rats. 200 male albino rats with 0.2±0.02 kg mean weight were used. The 200 rats were divided into four main groups with 50 rats within a group. The groups were labeled A, B C and D. The “A” group was neutral; “B” group was induced with 0.02 g, “C” 0.06g, and “D” 0.06 g of paraquat per kg rat every two weeks for three months. The main groups further had subgroups. “A” group had “A0” and “AVEC” subgroups; “B” group had “B0” and “BVEC” subgroups; “C” group had “C0” and “CVEC” subgroups; “D” group had “D0” and “DVEC” subgroups. “A0”, “B0”, “C0” and “D0” subgroups were not administered with vitamin E + C therapy while “AVEC”, “BVEC”, “CVEC” and “DVEC” were treated orally with 500 mg of vitamin E weekly and  2000 mg/l of vit C medicated water for one month. After then, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected and analyzed for the liver function; T. bilirubin, D. bilirubin, T. protein, albumin, and globulin. ANOVA intergroup comparison of A0, B0, C0 and D0 was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 except for globulin. Intergroup comparison of AVEC, BVEC, CVEC and DVEC was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 except for globulin. Intra-group comparison showed significant difference only in total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels, p-value<0.05. This study therefore has shown that weekly treatment with Vit E + C in one month can treat liver toxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phyllanthus amarus Aqueous Extract as Antidote to Alcoholic Liver Injury

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Olanike Mutiyat Alabi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2022/v33i630470

Objective: In most human communities, the consumption of alcoholic beverages is unregulated with negative impact on health. The liver is one of the major organs that bear the brunt of regular and or heavy consumption of alcohol. This study set out to elucidate the modulation of alcohol induced liver injury in wistar rat by aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus plant.

Methodology: Five groups of six animals each were used for the study. Group CN was the control. The alcohol only group (ALC) had 1ml / 100g body weight (b.w) of 43% ethanol. The Extract only group (EXT) had 200mg/ Kg b.w of P.amarus aqueous extract.  The Low Extract plus Alcohol group (LEA) had concomitant administration of 1ml/100g b. w of 43% ethanol with 200 mg/ Kg of the extract. The High Extract plus Alcohol group (HEA) had concomitant administration of 1ml/100g b. w of 43% ethanol and the extract at 400 mg/ Kg. The alcohol and extract were administered once daily for fourteen days. Thereafter, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses, the animals sacrificed and livers harvested for histopathological analyses.

Results: Group HEA had the highest mean body weight. The mean liver weight of group EXT was significantly higher than those of other groups. Both the total protein and its globulin fraction of the ALC group were significantly lower than those of others. The liver enzymes (Alanine and Aspartate transaminases) levels were significantly low in the ALC group. However, those of the LEA and HEA groups were comparable with the EXT group. The glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the LEA and HEA groups were significantly higher than that of ALC. Lipid peroxidation was most severe in the ALC group as evidenced by the significantly high malondialdehyde level. Histopathological sections of the liver revealed preserved hepatic architecture with pronounced steatosis in the ALC group.

Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus considerably reduced the severity of alcohol induced liver injury.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Pharmacological and Therapeutic Potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller

Deepak Sharma, Naimish Purohit, Shiwa Chaubey, Mohan Tiwari, Mradu Bhadauriya, . Mohit, Nilam Bhasker, Dharmendra Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-43
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2022/v33i630471

Aloe vera, a popular succulent perennial medicinal plant with a wide range of phytochemicals that have shown various pharmacological activities including anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, wound healing promotion and so on. Acemannan, aloe-emodin, aloin, aloesin, and emodin are widely investigated active constituents that show various pharmacological activities. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight previous pharmacological studied conducted in vivo, in vitro and human assays over the past decades. As current pharmacological research is focused on anticancer and neurological action, it would be interesting and important to study the main compounds present in Aloe vera for therapeutic purposes.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Senna occidentalis L. (Fabaceae): Potential Application as Remedy in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhea

Alain S-P. Kabasele Kalombo, Florent Biduaya Mukeba, Assumani Zabo Idrissa, Jean-Paul Nzambi Divengi, Patience Lunkondo Mbuyi, Jean-Pierre K. Kayembe, David Dago N’Da

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 44-62
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2022/v33i630472

Senna occidentalis L. has been used in several traditional medicines against various diseases and this is based on its botanical, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry profiles. This powerful herb is recognized for its antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimutagenic, protective, and inflammatory hepatic activity. Multiple chemical compounds, including achrosine, aloe-emodin, emodin, anthraquinones, etc., have been isolated from this plant. The results of this bibliographic research thus presented in this review have demonstrated the ability of certain extracts from S. occidentalis L. to lower the lipid peroxide content, the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and phospholipase A2 in exudates of the granuloma of cotton pellets, thus resulting in a reduced availability of arachidonic acid, an important precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which are the only likely source and/or cause of dysmenorrhea. Thus, based on its phytochemical profile and its pharmacological properties, it is therefore suggested that S. occidentalis would be a potential and effective remedy in the treatment of dysmenorrhea.