Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Chemical Characterization, Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Triterpenoids from the Tubers of Raphionacme vignei E. A. Bruce (Apocynaceae)

Diarra Diatta, Mamadou Fodé Camara, Madièye Sène, Philomène akoua Yao-Kouassi, Firmin Sylva Barboza, Abdoulaye Gassama, Catherine Lavaud, Guata Yoro Sy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130425

Raphionacme vignei E. A. Bruce (Apocynaceae) is a plant of the traditional African pharmacopoeia, whose parts are used in the treatment of various pathologies. Water-soaked R. vignei tubers are edible. The objective of this study was to isolate triterpenoids from the acetonic extract of R. vignei tubers, evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of each molecule. The isolated compounds, characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry, is composed of  six  triterpenoids:  beta-amyrin  dodecanoate  1(DDQ1),  lupeol  dodecanoate 2(DDQ2),  beta-amyrin  acetate  3(DDQ3),  lupeol  acetate  4(DDQ4),  luepol  5(DDQ5)  and β-sitosterol   6(DDQ6).   These   molecules   (DDQ2,   DDQ3,  DDQ4,  DDQ5,  DDQ6)  are anti-inflammatory  in  carrageenan  induced  rat  paw  edema,  with  better  anti-inflammatory power for DDQ2 and DDQ4, which would be related to the presence of acetate function and cycle  E.  DDQ2  and  DDQ4 are also analgesic in acetic acid induced contortions and the removal  test  of  rat  tail  on  the  heating plate. The analgesic action of DDQ2 and DDQ4, superior to that salicylic acetyl acid, identical to that morphine, suggests a central action of these two molecules. The potent analgesic effect of DDQ2 and DDQ4, could be attributed to the presence of cyclopentane and isoprene substitution in position 19 of the lupane family. DDQ2  and  DDQ4  represent  a  potential  for  the  synthesis  of  structural  analogues  with analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br Root Bark Extracts against Diethylnitrosamine Induced Liver Injury in Rats

Ernest Nogma Sombié, Adama Hilou, Noufou Ouédraogo, Jotham Yhi-Pênê N’do, Dramane Paré, Tata Kadiatou Traoré, Geoffroy G. Ouédraogo, André Tibiri

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130426

Background: Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a hepatotoxin whose metabolic activation by liver cytochromes P450 is responsible for the necrosis, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of liver cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Calotropis procera roots bark against DEN induced hepatocellular damage in rats.

Material and Methods: Hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera root bark were evaluated by induction of liver injury with DEN in Wistar male rats distributed in six groups of six. Serum hepatic markers, alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin were evaluated and the enzymes antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, as well as the level of malonedialdehyde (MDA) were determined in the liver homogenate. Histological analysis was carried out on sections of rat livers. Phytoconstituents have also been studied.      
Results: Pretreatment of rats with the extract showed a significant decrease in ALAT, ASAT and ALP while there was an increase in total protein and albumin compared to rats treated only with DEN. It also showed a significant increase in SOD and catalase and a decrease in MDA levels suggesting the hepatoprotective effect of the extract. Observation of liver sections confirmed the results of the biochemical parameters which would attest that the extract is hepatoprotective. Phytoconstituents such as sterols, triterpenes and phenolic compounds have been demonstrated.

Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera roots bark has shown hepatoprotective effects that could be due to its content in sterols and triterpenic and phenolic compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viability and Vigor of Cerrado Cashew Seeds (Anacardium humile) on Different Substrates

Helber Veras Nunes, Daniella Inácio Barros, Alessandro de Souza Santos, Indira Rayane Pires Cardeal, Mariana Senna Quirino, Ricardo Alencar Libório, Lucas Eduardo Morais Brito, Paulo Victor Gomes Sales, Heloísa Donizete da Silva, Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130427

The little cashew from the Cerrado (Anacardium humile) is a kind of family anacardiáceaceas, a shrubby plant of great incidence in the Brazilian Cerrado. It is a small pseudofruit, of acidic and juicy flavor, which is known to have colors ranging from yellow to red. It can be consumed naturally or in juices, drinks, sweets. However, its true fruit is the chestnut. Seed germination is influenced by factors such as the substrate, which can be improved in order to improve germination, resulting in the acquisition of more vigorous seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Tocantins, city of Gurupi/TO, from 26 October 2017 to 15 February 2018. Seeds were collected directly from the pseudofruits. The highest root length value was obtained for seedlings of the following substrates: bs + ws + pb   (7.1 cm and 12.5 cm) and ws (6.7 cm and 10.7 cm), intermediate values: or + rs + vl (6.3 cm and 10.0 cm) and hw + vl + sawdust + cp + ws (5.5 cm and 9.5 cm), and lower values on substrates: bs (5.7 cm and 8.0 cm) and bs + rs + sawdust (6,6 cm e 9,0 cm).  It was also observed that the highest value referring to the first emergency count and seedling emergence once again stood out the substrates bs + ws + pb (61.0 % and 87.5 %) and ws (56.2% and 86.2 %). Intermediate results were obtained from hw substrates + vl + sawdust + cp + ws(44.0 % and 81.0 %) and or + rs + vl (48.4 % and 81.2 %) and lower for bs substrates (37.5% and 72.0 %) and bs + rs + sawdust (45.3% and 77.0 %). The substrates: bs + ws + pb and washed sand provided the highest values of viability and vigor in cashew seeds.

Open Access Review Article

Herbal Mixtures: Aspects Related to the Quality of Chinese Medicine Formulas and Perspectives for Products Registration in Brazil

Ferdinando Lucas Góis, Ademir Evangelista do Vale, Gislane Oliveira Ribeiro, Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 28-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130428

Traditional medicine products are easily found in different regions of the world. Given this scenario, the World Health Organization (WHO) is very interested in the rational insertion of these resources, especially in primary pharmaceutical care in emerging countries. One of the main concerns of the WHO is with the population's access to traditional medicine products without quality guaranteed by regulatory and health control agencies in the country of origin. In ancient Chinese Pharmacology and Medicine, products based on associated drugs, used by boiling in water (decoction), successfully contribute to maintaining the health of Chinese people. In Brazil, the sanitary legislation of herbal mixtures for medicinal teas allows the sanitary notification of these products as traditional herbal medicines. On the other hand, the lack of clinical services to monitor consumption and the scarcity of evidence to ensure safety and efficacy, add to the inadequacy of the products to sanitary standards, the lack of inspection, and the definition of quality parameters for the evaluation of mixtures. Due to the chemical complexity of herbal mixtures, the correct identification of drugs through conventional techniques is usually possible for individual species, making it necessary to develop more comprehensive approaches. These testes allow to investigate the presence and/or absence of multiple pre-established markers, through the concept of fingerprint similarity and evaluation by chemometric tools. Liquid chromatography integrated with mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis proved to be the most used method. Among the objectives of this critical and prospective review are: to describe the probable origin of medicinal teas, the theoretical foundation of the compositions in pharmacology and traditional Chinese medicine, the modern techniques developed in the quality control of herbal mixtures, and the perspectives for rational and safe insertion of traditional herbal medicines in Brazilian pharmaceutical care.

Open Access Review Article

Plant Therapeutic Proteases: Chemical Aspects, Applications and Pharmaceutical Formulations

P. F. Ferreira, R. E. Silva-López

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1130429

Background: Plants are important sources of therapeutic proteases with expressive activity, stability, specificity, and efficiency. These proteases are employed at low concentrations and produce lesser side effects. They have complex tridimensional structures whose maintenance is a challenge, requiring specific conditions to guarantee the biological and pharmacological activities of these compounds.

Aims: To conduct a literature review about plant therapeutic proteases, their principal biochemical aspects, potentials and clinical applications, and main pharmaceutical formulations.

Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of a bibliographic survey of the major plant therapeutic proteases. An investigation was performed in the PUBMED, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Academic Google databases using the keywords plant enzymes, therapeutic protease, immobilization, formulation.

Results: Some plant therapeutic proteases, such as papain and bromelain, are employed to treat many diseases and conditions, but the complexity of their structures is an important limitation of their uses. Thus, the structure and activities of their formulations need to be stabilized and protected against degradation, with improved pharmacokinetics, a prolonged time of action, reduced toxic effects, and proper direction towards their therapeutic target. Nanotechnology has made it possible to manufacture drug carriers such as polymeric nano- and microparticles, hydrogels, dendrimers and liposomes which are able to increase their efficacy and clinical applicability, as well as patient compliance. Sustainability initiatives that use Green Chemistry together with nanobiotechnology have managed to reduce the risks of toxicity to organisms and the environment. Green synthesis uses lower concentrations of metal ions, water-soluble, biocompatible and non-toxic compounds, as well as seeking energy efficiency and using renewable sources of raw materials.

Conclusions: Investigations about new formulations of plant therapeutic proteases using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers is of great biomedical interest because they generate less toxic new biopharmaceuticals, in addition to protecting and stabilizing the enzymatic structure.