Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of a Proprietary Arctostaphylous uva-ursi Standardized Extract (UvaZen-VArb™) on Melanin Regulation and Skin Applications- An In-silico Molecular Docking Study

Mihir Gadani, Ratna Upadhyay, Kavita Pandey

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030421

Zenherb labs Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, developed a proprietary Arctostaphylous uva-ursi standardized extract (AUSE), (branded as UvaZen-VArb™). The current study is an attempt to get insights of the interaction of bioactives against target proteins involved in skin health pathways like melanogenesis.  A molecular docking approach was adopted to understand the protein-ligand interactions and predict the most probable mechanism(s) of beneficial skin health effects imparted by this cosmeceutical ingredient. Four phytoconstituents were docked against 15 shortlisted target proteins using Autodock Vina tool. Drug likeliness was assessed on the basis of ADMET properties and Lipinski’s Rule of 5. Arbutin, gallic acid, quercetin and rutin in AUSE demonstrated good docking scores and bioactivities for melanin regulation, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation-hair, skin and nail.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioration of Chemical Induced Hepatic Injury by Vitex agnus castus ExtractAmelioration of Chemical Induced Hepatic Injury by Vitex agnus castus Extract

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Nyerhovwo Abijah Akpovwovwo, Theophilus A. Jarikre, Benjamin O. Emikpe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030422

Objective: The liver is the major organ of detoxification of ingested materials such as food, beverages and drugs, thus it is prone to toxicity with attendant pathologies. We studied the ability of Vitex agnus castus plant extract to ameliorate the biochemical and structural alterations in Wistar rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allotted into eight equal groups. Group1 was normal control (NC); Group 2 Liver injury without extract (LI). The remaining six groups were paired composite group of varying dosage of the plant extract (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg). Only one member of each pair had induced liver injury. Consequently, the groups were Low extract without liver injury (LE), Low extract with liver injury (LEL); Medium extract without liver injury(ME)

 Medium extract with liver injury (MEL) and High extract without liver injury (HE),High extract with liver injury (HEL).The biochemical parameters evaluated were the liver function test {Total protein plus globulin and albumen fractions; liver enzymes- alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase}. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the activities of antioxidants namely; Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx).Histology of the harvested liver specimens was used to assess the structural alterations.

Results: The mean liver weight was highest in the HEL group and significantly different from that of its control (HE) and NC.The mean serum total protein of all the groups were significantly higher than that of the NC.The mean aspartate amino transferase levels of the LEL, ME and MEL groups were significantly lower than that of the control while that of the HEL was significantly higher than those of the LEL and MEL. The results of alanine amino transferase were similar to those of aspartate amino transferase. The alkaline phosphatase levels in all the experimental groups were significantly depressed when compared with the control. Amongst the experimental groups, the serum alkaline phosphatase level was significantly raised than those of the LEL, and MEL groups.

The glutathione (GSH) activities of LE, HE and HEL were significantly lower. While the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity of the control was significantly lower to those of groups LEL, ME, MEL and HEL.Histopathology of the liver showed preservation of the liver architecture with normal hepatocytes in all the groups.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Vitex agnus castus was able to reduce the severity of carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Medicinal Plants against Dermatophytic Pathogens

Temitayo Veronica Folorunso, Anthony Kayode Onifade, Kolawole Oladunmoye, Bamidele Juliet Akinyele

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 32-48
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030423

Bixa orellana, Jatropha curcas and Cassia alata are three of the prominent plants used for traditional medicine in Nigeria. Dermatophytosis also known as tinea or ringworm is the most frequent superficial fungal infections in Nigeria.  

Objective: In this Present Study, We Aimed at Comparing The Phytochemical Components and the Antifungal Efficacy of these Medicinal against Selected Dermatophytes. 

Study Design:  Cross Sectional Study among a Particular Population.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. Between March 2019 and September 2019.

Methods: The phytochemical contents of the plants were determined and the in-vitro antifungal activities of Bixa orellana, Jatropha curcas and Cassia alata were screened against seven species of Trichophyton (T. ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, M.gypseum T. soudenensis, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum) using agar dilution method.  

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the  presence  of  flavonoid, saponin, phenol, steroids, glycoside,  phytosteroids, alkaloids, terpenoid, tannin, and  cardiac glycoside in various quantities. The findings from our study showed that the ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants have more antifungal activities than other solvents. However, the hexane and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas was observed to be significantly higher than other extracts. The zone of inhibition recorded ranges from 22 mm-32 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 mg/ml was recorded. 

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Jatropha curcas showed broad effectiveness against the tested pathogens when compared to other plants and we conclude that the plants antifungal property is concentration dependent. However, we recommend further studies on these plants extracts using a large number of different isolates and solvents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histostereological Restorative and Inhibitory Effects of Crude Methanolic Bark Extract of Prunus Africanus on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

Kanyoni J. Mwangi, Kweri J. Kariuki, Mwangi A. Warimu, Bett S. Kipyegon, Sigei C. Chepngeno, Rono W. Kiplagat, Mabonga Cyprian, Ndung’u C. Wangui, Karanja J. Wanjiru, Kweri C. Kamau

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 49-61
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030424

Aim: To evaluate the histostereological effects of P. africanus on testosterone induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for six weeks in Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.

Methodology: A sample size of sixty Wistar were used as the experimental model and they were divided into two study groups of 30 rats in the restorative group and 30 rats in the inhibitory group. Each group was further categorized into 5 control and 25 experimental rats. The experimental rats were further subdivided into 5 sub-groups based on varying doses of the crude methanolic bark extract of P. africanus (0 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 125 mg, and 200 mg). BPH in experimental animal was induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate (7.5 mg/kg) for 10 days.

Results: The findings of the study showed that the restorative group had a statistical significant (P<0.05) ((dose dependent reduction of the prostate volume, the stromal and epithelium volume was observed. While in the inhibitory group a statistical significant (P<0.05) dose-related inhibition, in the increase of the prostate volume, the stromal and epithelium volume was observed. In conclusion, the maximal restorative effect was observed to be up to 85.6% and at a dose of 200 mg, while the optimal inhibitory effects were observed to be between 66.7- 68.4% in the dose range of 100-200 mg/kg/body weight.

Conclusion: Crude methanolic bark extract of P. africanus has both restorative.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical and Potential Pharmacological Properties of Pavetta indica Linn

Shishanthi Anuradha Perera, Vimukthi Asahara Samaranada, Praba Jalini Wijekumar, Imesha Hansani Nayanathara Hemasinghe, Kaveesha Dulangi Ranasinghe, Piyal Marasinghe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i1030419

Background: Pavetta indica Linn is a medicinal plant that belongs to the family of Rubiaceae. The parts of this plant are used in indigenous clinical practices, especially for treating visceral obstruction, haemorrhoidal pains, rheumatism and eye diseases, and in the preferential treatment of liver disease, pain from piles, urinary infections, and fever. Despite its usage in indigenous clinical practices, there is limited available information on comparative pharmacognostic, physicochemical, phytochemical, ethnopharmacological data and antioxidant capacity of this herb.

Aim: To review and summarize the medicinal properties of Pavetta indica Linn after critically evaluating the published studies reporting and to identify potential research areas from the existing data.

Methodology: In the first phase, a comprehensive literature search was carried out in several databases under the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Project for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines.

Results: The plant reported various classes of bioactive compounds with the main components: carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids, phenolic and flavonoids. Extracts of this plant possess multiple pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and wound healing factors, anti-dementia, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antihelminthic and diuretic properties.

Conclusion: This review gives vital information on the traditional uses and, on the other hand, modern discoveries such as phytochemistry and pharmacology of Pavetta indica Linn. The therapeutic value of the plant was discovered based on the information gathered during the review process. As a result, greater research on this plant should be encouraged to identify new useful drugs and therapeutic effects and test using clinical studies.