Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Quality Assurance of Dried Roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant F (Safed Musli)

Mansi Shrivastava, Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i930413

Aim: To assess total bacterial load and detect E. coli and Salmonella in Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli), cultivated and processed in the Bundelkhand region.

Study Design: Quality assurance of medicinal plant raw material is essential for the preparation of good quality herbal medicines. The dried roots of Safed Musli were collected from different regions of the Bundelkhand and total aerobic microbial count was measured.

Methodology: We collected 10 samples of Safed Musli dried roots from different regions of Bundelkhand. A stock suspension was prepared using sterile peptone water and plated on a nutrient agar medium which was used to calculate total aerobic bacterial load as colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g). Further, biochemical tests were performed to confirm the identification of E. coli and Salmonella.

Results: The total aerobic bacteria count in dried roots of Safed Musli was within the permissible limit (105-107CFU/g of dried raw material) as per globally recognized pharmacopoeia and other regulatory agencies such as the Central Council of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India, United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (BP), European Pharmacopoeia (EP), World Health Organization (WHO), American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) and National Science Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI). Although 2 out of 10 samples were found to have contamination of E. coli and Salmonella within the permissible limit of WHO, EP and NSF/ANSI.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the Safed Musli cultivated and processed in the Bundelkhand region is suitable for the preparation of herbal medicines and food supplements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration of the Pharmacokinetics of Theophylline by Paullinia cupana Kunth in Rats

Nayana Yared Batista, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, José Wilson do Nascimento Corrêa, Tatiane Pereira de Souza, Igor Rafael dos Santos Magalhães

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i930414

Aims: Paullinia cupana Kunth has been popularly used to prepare different beverages by the Amazonian inhabitants for a long time ago mainly due to its stimulant properties. Although the utilization of this herbal drug has been increasing lately, little is known regarding the possibility of drug interactions. Therefore, this research tried to investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of P. cupana on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline (TPH), a CYP1A marker in rats.

Methodology: The extract was prepared according to the popular recipe and subjects received different once daily doses of extract (vehicle, 82.1 mg/Kg and 821 mg/Kg) by oral gavage during two weeks. Non-compartimental analysis was carried out to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters.

Results: Animals treated with P. cupana (AUC: 1,197.2 ± 284.4 and 346.6 ± 37.0 µg.h/mL for 82.1 and 821 mg/Kg, respectively) had lower exposition to TPH than controls (3,539.48 ± 278.4 µg.h/mL). On the other hand, drug clearance was higher in treated subjects (2.44 ± 0.4 and 7.27 ± 0.7 L/h/kg for 82.1 and 821 mg/Kg, respectively) than controls (0.71 ± 0.0 L/h/kg).

Conclusion: Therefore, the multiple oral administration of an aqueous extract of P. cupana caused a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of TPH in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wild Mushroom Diversity of Rairangpur Forest Division, Odisha, India & Its Medicinal Uses

Arun Kumar Mishra, Sweta Mishra, Shruti Rathore, Vinay Naik, Usha Patil, Sanjeet Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i930415

Aims: Rairangpur forest division, Mayurbhanj, Odisha is a hub of diverse floral and faunal species. Apart from flora and fauna, it has a rich diversity of fungal species.  The present study highlights the diversity of macro fungi with special reference to its medicinal and economic values available in Rairangpur Forest Division, Odisha.

Place and Duration of Study: Field surveys were carried out at regular intervals (Pre monsoon and Post monsoon) in Rairangpur Forest Division during 2019-2020.

Results: Mushroom samples were collected and then identified with the help of standard available literatures and books. 99 wild mushroom species belonging to 56 genera of 37 families were noted.

Conclusion: It was found that 41 species were edible in which 15 mushrooms were consumed by different tribal communities in the study area. The rest species are poisonous or bitter in taste and further research on them could lead to isolate some bioactive compounds which could be a better preventive against many lethal diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Flavonoids from Basella alba L.

Pushpa Jagarwal, Rekha Vijayvergia, Dileep Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i930416

Basella alba is a perennial plant of the Basellaceae and is known by various common names including Malabar spinach. Various parts of the plant are used for treatment of the diseases as well as for different healing activities of human beings as well as animals across the globe especially in India and China. There are several phytochemical present in plants, viz. flavonoids,tannins phytosterols, alkaloids and triterpenes, etc. Flavonoids are an unusually large group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds ubiquitously distributed in plant kingdom.Basella alba L. used as medicinal herbs for rubefacient and catarrhal infections. In the present study, focus has been made to identify the flavonoid in different samples of Basella alba L.by TLC and IR. Further, the isolation of the same compound was confirmed by GC- MS analysis.Total amount of flavonoids were found in Basella alba (0.45 mg/gdw in stem and 0.36 mg/gdw in seeds ). Forty nine compounds found in GC-MS analysis .1–Methyl-4 – isopropylcyclohexyl 2- hydroperfluoro butanoate (Area of % 24.50) was found in highest amount.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Diverse Uses, Conservation Measures and Agronomic Aspect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Sowunmi L. Ifeanyichukwu, Elizabeth A. Ogidan, Omowunmi A. Idowu, Oyinkansade Y. Babalola, Anne A. Adam, Temitope O. Omogbene, Basirat O. Rafiu, Funmilola O. Akanni, Ayokunmi O. Oyeleye, Toluope F. Okanlawon, Musbau B. Olaniyi, Rofiat I. Oyediran, Ibraheem O. Lawal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 39-51
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i930417

Aims: This study aims to review the diverse uses of Aloe vera (true aloe) as well as the conservation measures and conventional cultivation techniques.

Study Design: Best evidence review.

Place and Duration of Study: Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria.

Methodology: Search inputs such as Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis in conjunction with the following terms: ‘uses’, ‘overexploitation’, ‘conservation’, ‘policy’, ‘cultivation’, ‘yield’, and ‘agronomic practices’ were queried on several scientific databases. Search engines, were also queried for publications covering exploitation, conservation approaches, and cultivation requirements on Aloe vera. Other databases such as ScienceDirect and SciFinder were accessed for relevant papers and supplement acquired information after articles (outside the defined scope of the review) were excluded.

Results: Aloe vera (true aloe) has been engaged particularly for medicinal and cosmetic purposes for thousands of years, and its utilization remains popular till date. Aloe vera is popularly valued for its natural products, including nutritional benefits in food, source of nectar for honey bees and nectarivorous birds and horticulture. In this study, several studies demonstrating the botanical characteristics and ecological adaptation of A. vera were discussed; agronomic techniques involving the requirements for land preparation, propagation and harvesting were also considered as well as the growth yield of the plant due to different soil types and nutrient applications.

Conclusion: For the multifarous uses of Aloe vera, adequate policy should be appropriated to regions where this plant is put to industrial uses, over-exploited and threatened. Calcareous and non-calcareous soil have maximum yield on true aloe. Azotobacter chroococcum of strain 12 has turned out to be a good growth stimulant bacterium when treated with A. vera. Aloe rust and anthracnose disease are known fungal infections, while Aloe vera aphid (Aloephagus myersi) is an identified pest of the plant.