Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activities of the Aqueous Extracts of Pedalium murex D. Royen EX L. Fruit and Leafy Stem

Gerard Bessan Dossou-Agoin, Habib Ganfon, Fidèle Assogba, Adam Gbankoto, Joachim Gbenou, Laleye Anatole

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830406

Aims: The leafy stem and fruit of P.murex have been reported to be used in folk medicine to treat male reproductive system ailments. This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extracts of P.murex leafy stem and fruit.

Methodology: Extracts were prepared by macerating the powder in water. Total phenolics amount were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids were quantified by aluminum chloride method and total tannin content was estimated by hexacyanoferric method. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were assessed through 2,2´-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibition assay and lipid peroxidation assay.

Results: Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins content were respectively equal to 48.91± 1.67 µg/mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE); 56.01± 0.90 µg/mg Rutin Equivalents (RUE); 16.92± 1.22 µg/mg Tannic Acid Equivalents (TAE) for the leafy stem extract while they were equal to 26.26± 0.54 µg/mg GAE; 47.88± 2.39 µg/mg RUE; 7.94± 0.31 µg/mg TAE for the fruit. The leafy stem extract exhibited a more pronounced DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation activity than the fruit extract.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the leafy stem aqueous extract was significantly more potent than that of the fruit extract. Further studies will find out the extracts pharmacological efficacy and innocuity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Hydroethanolic Extract of Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. (Passifloraceae) on Nociception and Subsequent Anxiety-like Behavior: Both Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Approaches

Pacôme Kouadio N’Go, Lazare Tehoua, Eric-Kevin Gbouhoury Bolou, Aicha Salamentou Touré, Antoine Némé Tako

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830407

Aims: Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl. (Passifloraceae) is widely used in Ivorian traditional pharmacopeia to heal various chronic diseases, relieve headache and pain of gingiva inflammation, and facilitate labor. Here, we investigated the effects of hydroethanolic extract Adenia lobata (HEAL) on nociceptive pain and subsequent anxiety-like behavior.

Materials and Methods: We used several experimental pain tests as the writhing, formalin and hot plate to evaluate both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of the extract. Anxiety related to nociception was tested with open field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, mice were sacrificed for assessing some oxidative stress markers.   

Results: The extract of 30 mg/kg, p.o. reduced in the similar manner as reference peripheral drug salcylicacetic acid (ASA, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) the number of writhings induced by acid acetic. In both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin test, the extract demonstrated an effective antinociceptive activity than ASA, but comparable to central analgesic tramadol (50 mg/kg, i.p). However, Adenia lobata reduced lesser thermal-induced pain than tramadol in hot plate test, but significantly compared to ASA. Furthermore, HEAL altered anxiety-like behavior in each case of the pain condition studied. Also, the extract showed the highest antioxidant activity by reduction oxide nitric (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increase non protein thiol (NP-SH) levels.    

Conclusion: In conclusion, HEAL possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions on peripheral and central mechanisms of pain. The phytochemicals components of the extract as alkaloids and flavonoids suggest to interact with the opioid system and combat the oxidative stress, respectively. Our findings provide scientific basis for the use of Adenia lobata in traditional medicine against pain and related diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Cnestis ferruginea Leaves on the Male Reproductive System in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

Kouassi Emile Bégbin, N’Guessan Ernest Zougrou, Séverin Koffi, Edwige Alida Odoh, Koffi Kouakou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830408

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease and one of the most common chronic disorders. Diabetes mellitus has been associated with impaired reproductive health, mainly in men. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of the aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea leaves on the male reproductive system in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The determination of phenolic compounds content in the aqueous extract was performed by conventional methods. Diabetes was induced in adult male mice by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of 220 mg/Kg body weight of alloxan. Animal’s treatment with 100 and 200 mg/Kg of body weight of the aqueous extract was started 34 days after induction of diabetes. Sperm density, morphology and motility were assessed by standard methods. Serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH were measured. In addition, the testes were removed for histological study. Proportions of total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea were 5260.32 +/- 26 mg EAG /100g, 1384.43 +/- 4 mg EQ /100g and 7380.95 +/- 121 mg EC /100g respectively. 100 and 200 mg/Kg of body weight doses induced highly significant (P ˂ .001) reductions of 68% and 71% in blood glucose levels respectively, significant (P ˂ .05) increases in testes weight of 9% and 10% respectively, highly significant (P ˂ .001) increases in testosterone, pituitary gonadotropins and sperm parameter levels. In addition, regeneration of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells was observed. Cnestis ferruginea leaves are rich in phenolic compounds. These compounds have anti-diabetic and fertilizing activities on the male reproductive system of diabetic mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Properties of the Hydro-Ethanolic Leaf and Stembark of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) on Cariogenic and Periodontopathic Bacteria

Fowedlung Ngufor Agafina, Ashu Michael Agbor, Fotsing Kwetche Pierre René, Tembe Fokunang Estella, Pilipili Charles, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-49
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830409

Background: Caries and periodontal diseases are major public health problems. Due to increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, there is a need to promote the known potential of plants and search for new anti-infectious substances as therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics.

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial property of the hydro-ethanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of Psidium guajava on cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

Methodology: This was an experimental study that took place in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Microbiology (Clinique Universitaires des Montagne (CUM)) of Bangangté between January to June 2020. They were dried in shade for 3 weeks and ground to obtain a coarse powder. The dried powders were macerated for 72 hours in a water-ethanol mixture (30:70). Then, the phytochemical screening and quantification of the total polyphenol content followed. Microdilutions were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of guava. Müller Hinton agar was used for obtaining the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and the determination of inhibition diameters of the bacteria.

Results: Extraction yields of 17.36g and 42.55g were obtained for leaf and stem bark, respectively. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites among which the total phenol content was quantified at 236.1878 and 255.7682 mg equivalent of gallic acid per gram for leaf and stem bark, respectively. The carious bacteria isolated were: Streptococcus mutans, Actinomycetes viscosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus.While, the periodontal bacteria were: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum ,Tannerella forsythensis. The results obtained showed that the combined extracts of leaf and stem bark had an activity higher than that of the stem bark which in turn had a higher activity than the leaves. 

Conclusion: Non-invasive independent predictors for screening esophageal varices may decrease medical as well as financial burden, hence improving the management of cirrhotic patients. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Beneficial Role of Ginger Powder (Zingiber officinale) against Acephate-induced Reprotoxicity in Adult Male Rats

V. Madhavi, U. Kanchana Ganga, S. B. Sainath, B. Kishori

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830410

Aims: The present study was aimed to investigate the protective role of ginger against acephate-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats.

Methodology: Rats were allocated into four groups where animals in group I served as controls, while animals in group II, III and group IV were treated as experimental rats. Rats in groups II, III and IV were treated with acephate (50mg/kg body weight), ginger (100mg/kg body weight) and combination of both acephate and ginger, respectively over a period of 60 days. After completion of experimental period sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, serum testosterone and testicular architecture was performed in both control and experimental rats.

Results: Relative weights of reproductive organs, sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility and sperm membrane integrity were significantly decreased in acephate treated rats over controls. Acephate administration also reduced the circulatory levels of testosterone associated with a significant reduction in the testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD) in rats. The testicular architecture was disrupted in acephate intoxicated rats. In contrast, ginger administration significantly recovered the acephate-induced suppressed selected reproductive parameters with increased circulatory levels of testosterone and restoration of sperm endpoints in as compared to acephate alone treated rats. No significant changes were observed in any of the selected reproductive endpoints in ginger treated rats as compared to controls.

Conclusion: The results can be concluded that supplementation of ginger mitigates the negative effects of acephate on male reproductive health via amelioration of testicular setroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm maturation events in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Diabetic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth Leaf on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

David Yakubu Bot, Odachi Helen Agbo, Abigail John Ajiji, Abraham Adoniyi Ahmed, Adaobi Ifeoma Ekwenpu, Daniel Chundusu, Yakubu Sunday Bot, Obiageri Nancy Igwe, Ezekiel Oyekunle Ojo, Pam Pwajok Gambo, Ezra Kadiri, Judith Aladi Agbo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i830411

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin or inability of insulin receptors to respond positively to circulating insulin. Prevalence of the disease is on the global increase annually with tendency to rise from 380 to over 592 million by 2035 in developing countries. Toxicity of some Orthodox drugs in use has led to searches for alternative sources for treatment and management of the disease.

Aim: This work was aimed at investigating the effect of methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck leaf on Alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic albino rats.

Materials and Methods: Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract was carried out in Biochemistry Division of National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. Forty female Wistar albino rats were used for the study, divided into five groups (A-E) in two replicates. Group A- negative control (non-induced, not treated) and group B- positive control (induced with Alloxan - 120mg/kg body weight (b.w), administered intra-peritoneally but not treated). Groups C- and D- induced and treated with 100 and 200mg/kg b.w extract respectively. Group E- non-induced but treated with 100mg/kg b.w of extract. Diabetes was established on day 3 after induction. Blood samples were collected through retro-orbital plexus into Fluoride oxalate bottles on days 0, 3, 5 and 9. Glucose was estimated by Glucose Oxidase method.

Results/Conclusion: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes. Glucose analysis results showed dose dependence and statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose from 3rd, 5th and 9th days post induction following treatment with Albizia lebbeck in group C- 14.5±3.5, 10.4±4.6 and 8.4±3.7; in group D- 14.0±4.7, 10.2±3.3 and 6.5±2.5; and in group E- 5.0±0.6, 3.7±0.5 and 3.5±0.5 respectively. We conclude that methanolic leaf extract of the plant Albezia lebbeck (L.) Benth, possesses anti-diabetic properties effective on both normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats.