Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Development of Turkey Berry (Solanum torvum SW)

Ghan Singh Maloth, Rajinikanth Marka, Rama Swamy Nanna

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730400

In the present study it was reported on direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cotyledon and leaf explants of Turkey berry/pea egg plant (Solanum torvum SW), a medicinally important plant. Somatic embryogenesis has several advantages over other routes of in vitro plant regeneration. Somatic embryogenesis was induced directly from cotyledon and leaf explants on MS medium fortified with BAP (0.5 mg/L)+NAA (0.5-6.0 mg/L). High percentage of somatic embryogenesis (90%), maximum number of somatic embryos formation (62±0.18)  along with high percentage (76%) conversion of somatic embryos into bipolar embryos was observed on cotyledon explants in 0.5 mg/L BAP+2.5 mg/L NAA. At the same concentration of BAP (0.5 mg/L)+NAA (2.5 mg/L) also resulted  on the maximum percentage of somatic embryogenesis (92%), the highest number of somatic embryos formation (88±0.15) and the highest percentage (76%) of somatic embryos conversion into bipolar embryos in leaf explants. A mixture of globular, heart and torpedo-shaped embryos were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L IAA+1.0-4.0 mg/L BAP. Maximum germination frequency (75±0.14) of somatic embryos and plantlet formation was found in 0.5 mg/L IAA+2.0 mg/L BAP, but they didn’t germinate on ½ MSO and MSO media. The survival rate of regenerated plants after field transfer was recorded to be 75%. These regenerated plants were found morphologically similar to donor plants. The present protocol can be used for conservation of the species and also for genetic transformation experiments in S. torvum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes Associated with Treatment of Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice with Momordica charantia, Xylopia aethiopica and Entandrophragma angolense Leaf Extract

Fatai A. Kareem, Opeyemi J. Owolabi, Mutiu A. Alabi, Omotola B. Ogunsuyi, Sofiyat F. AbdulKadir, Ayodeji O. Obatoye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730401

Aim: Leaves of plants have been useful in the treatment of various diseases and infections. The study aims at determining the nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and hematological effect of Momordica charantia, Xylopia aethiopica, and Entandrophragma angolense on the Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

Study Design: The plants’ leaves were air-dried and extracted. Forty-two Swiss male mice, 18 to 25 g, were grouped into six of seven mice each. Group I was uninfected but were administered with normal saline for four days, Group II to VI were all infected with P. berghei and administered with normal saline, 300 mg/b.w. of M. charantia leaf extract, 300 mg/b.w. of E. angolense leaf extract, 300 mg/b.w. of X. aethiopica leaf extract and 40 mg/b.w. of chloroquine injection for four days, respectively.

Results: The treatment groups showed a lower level of toxicity when compared with chloroquine treatment. X. aethiopica has the greatest positive impact on the PCV level of the experimental animals of its treated group compared with other groups.

Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the antimalarial potential of X. aethiopica and thus can be used to treat malaria without anemia as a side effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydro-Alcoholic Root Extracts of Ziziphus abyssinica is Effective in Diabetes Nephropathy and Diabetic Wound Healing

Samuel A. Akwetey, Douglas B. Aidoo, Wisdom Ahlidja, Bright B. Boafo, Joseph M. Acquah, Joshua F. Agyei, Desmond Bakoji, Portia A. Okyir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730402

Background: This study evaluated the potential of Ziziphus abysinnica root extract in managing hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diabetic wound healing and diabetic nephropathy.

Methodology: Blood glucose concentrations were measured daily for 14 days after daily administrations of either Ziziphus abysinnica (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o), metformin (300 mg/kg, p.o) or normal saline as negative control before diabetes induction using a single dose of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p). Histopathological analysis was performed on the harvested kidneys following administration with Ziziphus abysinnica in diabetic rats. The diabetic wound healing potentials of the plant was also evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by treating them with 15%w/w ZAE ointment.

Results: Generally, the percentage of blood glucose levels analysed following administration of drugs were found to be dose-dependent. The highest dose of ZAE (300 mg/kg) had a higher percentage reduction in blood glucose concentration when compared to metformin (300 mg/kg).  The lowest dose (30 mg/kg) of ZAE administered attenuated STZ induced pathological damage and showed moderate to maximal improvement to the kidney nephrons. In contrast, the 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg dose ZAE demonstrated minimal pathological changes to the kidney architecture.

Conclusion: Overall, our study demonstrated the antidiabetic potential of Ziziphus abysinnica, suggesting its possible therapeutic benefit in diabetic wound healing and diabetic nephropathy. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Three Vitrification Solutions for an Effective Droplet-vitrification Cryopreservation Procedure for Pfaffia Glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen

Daniela Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Antonieta Nassif Salomão, Ildeu Soares Martins, Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730403

Aims: The objective of this research was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for shoot tips (ST) of in vitro P. glomerata using the droplet-vitrification technique.

Study Design: The experimental design was a factorial, with four factors, arranged in a completely randomized design. Three vitrification solutions (PVS2, PVS3, PVS4), three times (20, 40, 60 min) and two temperatures (25 ± 2 °C and 0 °C) of treatment with the solutions, followed by freezing (LN+) or not (LN-) with liquid nitrogen (LN) were tested. All tests were performed using six replicates and the results analysed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests and expressed as the mean ± the standard error of the means (SEM) deviation.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Cryobiology, Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, over a two-year period.

Methodology: ST excised from in vitro plantlets were pre-cultured overnight (19h), treated with a loading solution (LS) and three different vitrification solutions (PVS2, PVS3, PVS4) prior to freezing in LN. Treatment with the vitrification solutions was carried out at 0 or 25°C, for 20, 40 or 60 min. For freezing, drops of the vitrification solutions containing a single ST were dispensed on aluminum foil strips and the strips were submerged in LN (-196°C). For thawing, foil strips were submerged into unloading solution (US) at 40 ± 2°C, for three min. Thawed ST were transferred to regeneration medium and cultured in vitro.

Results: Highest regeneration percentages after cryopreservation were 82% for ST treated with PVS3, at 0°C, for 60 min; 32% for ST treated with PVS4 at 25°C for 60 min or 0°C for 40 min and 22% for those treated with PVS2 at 0°C for 60 min.

Conclusion: Droplet-vitrification is a suitable technique to ensure survival of P. glomerata ST after cryopreservation. This procedure can be applied to establish germplasm collections of this medicinal species in gene banks.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Process of Electrohomeopathic remedy “SLASS” Preparation, Compared with Krauss Method By phytochemical Analysis, TLC and FTIR Studies

P. Sureshbabu, D. C. Bhavya, E. Siddalingamurthy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 39-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730404

Electrohomeopathy medicines have been practicing since the 1850s in European countries and from the 1870s in India. There are various methods of preparation of Electrohomeopathic medicines that have been developed and practice by the different manufacturers. For the safety, efficacy, and stability of the medicines, there is a need for scientific research to standardize the procedure of medical preparations. SLASS is one of the commonly using remedy by the electro homeopathy practitioners for various disorders concern to the digestive system, excretory system and nervous system etc... In the present studies we attempted a comparative study of a Process of Electrohomeopathic remedy “SLASS” Preparation, Compared with the Krauss method by phytochemical analysis, TLC, and FTIR Studies. Our process and Krauss method showed significant differences in phytochemical profile TLC and FTIR spectral peaks. The yield of the extracts of Aloe capensis and Gentiana lutea are more in our method compared to Krauss method. Glycoside is present in Krauss method. These research outcomes with reproducibility will become standard markers or signatures to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of the electro homeopathy medicine as well as reduce the risk of adulterations helps to develop specifications of the Electrohomeopathy remedies. Future work is essential to explore its therapeutic applications

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and in vivo Activities of Psidium guajava and Azadirachta indica Leaf Extracts and solvent Fractions against Salmonella Typhi

Adetutu Adewale, Olaniyi Deborah Temitope, Awodugba Tamilore, Owoade Abiodun Olusoji, Olaniyan, Lamidi Waheed B., Oyekunle Simeon Olubunmi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 56-71
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i730405

Typhoidal salmonella infections remain a challenge in the health care system in sub-Saharan Africa. Carrier status and advent of multi-drug resistant S. Typhi strains have necessitated the search for new drug leads. Hence, this study aims at investigating P. guajava and A. indica leaves for anti-salmonella activities. Guava and neem leaves were extracted by maceration in methanol and fractionated by solvent partitioning. In vitro activities were assessed by agar well diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Sixty male rats were randomized to 10 groups of 6 animals each for the in vivo experiments. Groups of rats except, normal control, were induced with 0.5McFarland of S. Typhi suspension orally. Treatment groups received 200 mg/kg body weight of extracts and fractions, and the control groups were treated with 14.29mg/kg body weight of ciprofloxacin and 1%v/v DMSO for 7 days post-infection. Biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Hematological parameters were analyzed with automated hematology diagnostic machine. All fractions of P. guajava and three of A. indica inhibited S. Typhi growth with Zone of Inhibition (ZI) ranging from 11-15 mm. Active fractions inhibited 48.60-62.45% of S. Typhi biofilm formation at 25 mg/mL with Minimum Bactericidal Inhibitory Concentration (MBIC) of 0.39-12.5 mg/mL. All fractions improved body weight of treated rats and inhibited bacteremia at 44.75 and 95.94%. Hematological parameters improved in all fractions-treated rats. MDA was not significantly (p<0.05) altered in all groups. One fraction of P. guajava (ePg) lowered the elevated level in concentration of Nitric oxide (NO) while all fractions enhanced the lowered activity of SOD. Elevated (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin (BIL) were lowered by all fractions to various extents in treated rats. Fractions of P. guajava, and A. indica could be further considered for identification of active anti-salmonella principle(s).