Open Access Original Research Article

Total Free Proline Estimated in Some Selected Species of Pteridophytic Flora of Rajasthan

Shahdab Hussain, Faten Z. Filimban, Shirin Quazi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630394

Proline, a well-known amino acid, has been estimated in ten different pteridophytes, including Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Adiantum caudatum L., Adiantum incisum Forssk., Adiantum philippense L., and Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) link. Christenh. in various organs such as the root, rhizome, and leaves Hemionitis anceps (Blanf.) Christenh., Hemionitis bicolor (Roxb.) Christenh., Hemionitis formosana Christenh (Hayata). Result of study is indicate that the maximum total proline in entire plant was recorded 43.54 mg/gdw and leaves have been  recorded 24.10 mg/gdw in Pteris vittata subsp. vittata and the minimum value was recorded 3.60 mg/gdw in root of Adiantum caudatum L.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Chronic Anti-inflammatory effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extract on Wistar Rats

Emmanuel Ikechukwu Onwubuya, Henrietta Aritetsoma Ogbunugafor, Chike Samuel Okafor, Afees Adebayo Oladejo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630395

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae) is used traditionally to treat many ailments. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of hydro-ethanol leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on Wistar rats using acute and chronic models and also evaluates the bioactive compounds of the leaf extract. The phytochemical constituents of the plant extract were quantitatively determined by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and acute anti-inflammatory activity was carried out with the aid of plethysmometer while chronic anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using cotton pellet. Results showed that the leaf extract of B. pinnatum was rich in kaempferol (7.006 ±0.02 μg/g), sapogenin (3.372 ±0.02 μg/g), rutin (1.837 ±0.01 μg/g) and lunamarine (1.359 ±0.01 μg/g). The findings showed that the plant had considerable anti-inflammatory effects in a dose dependent manner, returning edema in carragenean-induced and cotton pellet induced granuloma in Wistar rats to normal within 120 minutes and 7 days respectively. The findings of this work have shown that the leaf of B. pinnatum was rich in bioactive compounds which could be synthesized to produce new plant based product to fight inflammatory disorders with fewer side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examining the Androgenic Effect of Different Imperata Cylindrica Extracts on Diabetic Wistar Rats

M. O. Nwokike, S. I. Ghasi, A. O. Ogbonna, C. A. Anusiem, C. C. Ofor, E. C. Ogbuagu, M. N. Ezenwaeze, Akpotu E. Ajirioghene

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630396

This was an experimental study that evaluated the effect of aqueous, methanol and chloroform root extracts of Imperata cylindrica on serum levels of testosterone in male Wistar rats. Shade dried Imperata cylindrica roots were pounded and crude extracts prepared using distilled water, methanol and chloroform. Diabetes mellitus was induced with alloxan monohydrate and the diabetic rats were divided into six groups (n=8) and kept in separate cages. Group A rats were Non-Diabetic Rats Treated With Distilled Water. In Group B were placed Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Distilled Water. Groups C, D and E contained Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with 200 mg/Kg body weight water, chloroform and methanol Imperata cylindrica root extracts in the given order. Group F was the Positive Control with Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Glibenclamide [0.5 mg/kg body weight]. This treatment was carried out for 28 days sequentially. An analysis of the serum obtained from the rats after 28 days indicate that the extracts increased testosterone levels to varying degrees with the methanol extract producing the highest activity of 27.42 percent. This increase is from 3.23±0.04 ng/ml at baseline to 4.45±0.11 ng/ml after 28 days (p 0.0001). The increase due to aqueous extract was equally very statistically significant (p 0.0001) as the baseline concentration of testosterone, 3.35±0.08 ng/ml was increased by 23.70% to 4.39±0.32 ng/ml. The chloroform extract proved to be the least active of the extracts as it only increased the testosterone level by 11.76% from 3.15±0.19 ng/ml at baseline to 3.57±0.09 ng/ml after 28 days (p=0.0213). This was about two and half times lower than the methanol extract that elicited highest activity among the extracts and about four times less than the effect produced by the Group F rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of glibenclamide. The testosterone levels of Group F rats after 28 days increased to the levels seen in the normal control group that did not receive alloxan, from 3.17±0.12 to 5.51±0.25 ng/ml, a 42.47% change. This result indicates that methanol is the best extractant of the three solvents analyzed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Phytochemicals and Physicochemical Compositions of Chrysophyllum albidum G: Don Seeds Oil and Edible Commercial Oil

Basirat O. Rafiu, Opeyemi A. Agboadediran, Yetunde O. Babalola, Ibraheem O. Lawal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630397

Aims: This study was designed to compare the extractable yield of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil, the phytoconstituents, and physicochemical parameters with the commercially available vegetable oil, to ascertain their suitability for human consumption and industrial uses.

Place and Duration of Study: Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria in collaboration with the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, between October, 2018 to July, 2019.

Methodology: The seeds were collected from two locations (a parent tree in the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) and as well procured at Akesan market in Oyo town (Oyo) all in Oyo State, Nigeria. The experiments were executed adopting the standard procedures. The air-dried powdered C. albidum seed was cold macerated with analytical grade N-Hexane. The oils were purified using activated charcoal and qualitatively screened to ascertain the phytochemicals in them. Physico-chemical parameters were quantitatively determined following AOAC guidelines.

Results: The results revealed that C. albidum is a low oil yielding seed especially when cold maceration was employed. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides in all the oils. Saponins were found only in the oil from the FRIN source. While tannins and flavonoids were absent in all the oils. The physico-chemical parameters revealed the ranges of 0.90 - 9.45 mgKOH/g (Acid value), 101.90 - 356.60 mgKOH/g (saponification value), 65.30 - 78.00 mg/g (iodine value), 101.00 - 348.50 (ester value), 2.93 - 6.21 (PH value), 0.787 - 0.900g/cm3 (Relative density) and 1.4590 - 1.6560 (Refractive index @280C).

Conclusion: It can be deduced that there are disparities in the yield, phytoconstituents and the physico-chemicals of the oils used for this study. Further research is needed on the C. albidum oil to validate its edibility and affirm its medicinal uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis of the Rauwolfia vomitoria Ethanol Extracts

I. I. Asoro, O. A. T. Ebuehi, M. N. Igwo-Ezikpe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630398

Bioactive compounds are the frontline potent agents in both nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical industries. The bioactive compounds are gaining much importance for their ability in enhancing resistance to various diseases and to improve the health of people both by traditional and modern ways of administrations. R. vomitoria is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to manage hypertension, diabetes and mental disorder. This present study sought to characterize the bioactive components of R. vomitoria leaf and root ethanol extracts using Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The results of the GC-MS analysis provide different peaks indicating the presence of 22 phytochemicals in the plant leaf and 16 phytochemicals in the root. The major bioactive compounds in the leaf were squalene (18.69%), phytol (16.47%), n-hexadecanoic acid (15.68%), 7-tetradecenal, (Z) (12.90%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z,Z)-, (9.56%) and others, while the roots contains; cis-vaccenic acid (32.13%), n-hexadecanoic acid (15.41%), (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester (9.83), cyclohexanecarbonitrile 1-(-4- chlorophenyl (9.45%), 8H-azeceno[5,4-b] indol-8-one, 5-ethylidene (7.66%) and other minor compounds. Pharmacological activities of these compounds indicated that the compounds present in the leaf of the plant can be used as a crude drug which could be developed into a novel drug. Some of these compounds have antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic as well as cancer preventive activities amongst others. The findings suggest that there is an indication that both R. vomitoria leaves and roots contain potent bioactive compounds that may be linked to its beneficial effects on health, with the leaf taking the lead. It is therefore recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Evaluation of Brain Tissue in Dyslipidemic Rats Treated with Dietary Supplements Based on Amazonian Fruits

Matheus Vinícius de Souza Carneiro, Ricardo de Queiroz Freitas, Lucas Baltar Rodrigues, Wenberger Lanza Daniel de Figueiredo, Geane Antiques Lourenço, José Fernando Marques Barcellos, Adele Salomão-Oliveira, Rosany Piccolotto Carvalho

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i630399

Aims: By using histological analysis, the study aims to evaluate the effect of a nutraceutical based on the Amazonian fruits of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) Mc Vaugh), acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) and guarana (Paullinia cupana) on the brain tissue (hippocampus) of dyslipidemic rats.

Methodology: Preclinical trials were conducted using male and female rats (n=30) of the Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) that were randomly divided into five groups (G) (n=6). G1 was control, G2 was induced to obesity with consumption of experimental feed (hypercaloric and hyperlipidic), G3 was induced to obesity with consumption of experimental feed and treated with simvastatin (50 mg/kg/day), and G4 and G5, which were induced to obesity with the consumption of experimental feed and supplemented with 100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day of the formulation, respectively. The study period was 72 days, and, for 37 days, induction to obesity was performed with the experimental feed (hypercaloric and hyperlipidic). During the following weeks, for 35 days, after division of the groups, certain groups received, in parallel, treatment with simvastatin (G3) or supplementation with the nutraceutical (G4 and G5). Subsequently, histological slides of the brain tissue stained with violet cresyl were elaborated, photographed and analyzed.

Results: No significant differences were observed between the mean of intact neurons among the experimental groups induced to obesity. The neurotoxic effect, evidenced by the significant difference between the mean of intact neurons between the control group and obesity-induced groups, corroborates the findings of neuronal damage and degenerative processes reported in the literature.

Conclusion: The nutraceutical based on Amazonian fruits was not able to prevent the neurotoxic effect arising from the hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet, and therefore did not present a neuroprotective effect in Wistar rats under the conditions established in the experiment.