Open Access Systematic Review Article

Antileishmanial Activity of the Genus Piper: A Systematic Review

Caroline G. Macêdo, Kelly Christina F. Castro, Edilene Oliveira da Silva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 21-44
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530391

Background: Leishmaniases are anthropozoonotic vector-borne diseases, caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp. These diseases have significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and, as there are currently no vaccines available for their treatment, chemotherapy remains the mainstay for anti-leishmanial therapeutics. However, the severe side effects, reduced bioavailability, high cost and chemoresistance, amongst other problems, limit the use of available drugs. In recent years, natural compounds have shown promise as anti-leishmanial agents, especially those extracted from medicinal plants. The genus Piper has been used in traditional medicine and widely explored for its biological properties and bioactive phytocompounds.

Aim: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of the biological activity of the genus Piper against the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, to provide a perspective for effective and safe phytotherapics, new drugs or potentially active prototype chemical substances.

Methodology: This systematic review was prepared in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The databases used for this review were SciELO, Pubmed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar, using a temporal profile of 2009 to 2020.

Conclusion: In this review, we summarize a wide range of isolated compounds, extracts and essential oils of the genus Piper that are worth screening given their potential for development as effective anti-leishmanial drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Amnesic Effect of Curculigo orchioides Plant Extract and Its Function on Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme

Kushal Biswas, Umme Habiba Haque, Nuzhat Mahbub, Authoi Roy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 6-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530389

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and one of the most predominant causes of dementia in older people. Preventing acetylcholine from breakdown by an excess amount of acetylcholinesterase is a proven therapy for AD. Traditionally Curculigo orchioides is known for its antioxidant activity, enzyme inhibition activity, and other medicinal uses. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase, inhibitory activity was investigated, and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. This study aims to investigate cholinesterase inhibitory activity, learning, and memory-enhancing activity of Curculigo orchioides.

Materials and Methods: The crude methanol extract of the dried powder was prepared by the cold extraction method. In-vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities were determined by the modified Ellman’s method. To confirm learning and memory-enhancing effects, the scopolamine-induced memory impairment Swiss-albino mice were used, and to find the anti-amnesic effect of the extract, a passive shock avoidance task was applied.

Results: Results proved that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction decreased significantly by administration of the plant extract solution in the passive avoidance task, and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. While running an in-vitro AChE inhibitory test the IC50 was 0.782±0.067μg/ml.

Conclusion: The results suggested that methanolic extract of Curculigo orchioides can inhibit AChE in-vitro. Besides this, it provides data that proves its ability to improve whole brain AChE activity and enhance memory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Constituents from Wood of Zanthoxylum rigidum Hum. & Bonpl. Ex Willd (Rutaceae) and Antileishmanial Activity

Carlos H. C. dos Santos, Mayara C. Sousa, Paulo T. de Sousa Jr., Tereza A. N. Ribeiro, Marco J. Jacinto, Virgínia C. Paulino Silva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530390

In this study was reported the structural elucidation by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D), FT-IR and mass spectrometry of lupeol (1), a mixture of the steroids campesterol (2), b-sitosterol (3) and stigmasterol (4), sesamin (5), trans-dimethylmatairesinol (6), trans-methylpluviatolide (7), quercetin (8), and d-mannitol (9) isolated from wood of Zanthoxylum rigidum. The lignans 5, 6 and 7 were tested for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of the promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania chagasi. Only sesamin (5) and trans-methylpluviatolide (7) showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 = 22.4 and 33.6, SI = 3.87 and 2.41 and CC50 = 86.9 and 81.2, for L. braziliensis and L. chagasi, respectively, compared to the positive control (amphotericin B).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Leaf Extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata and Kalanchoe daigremontiana Chemistry, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity

Edmond J. Quintero, Estela Guerrero De León, Juan Morán-Pinzón, Aldahir Mero, Edwin León, Laura P. Patiño Cano

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530392

The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical components and evaluate the biological activity of the extracts from the leaves Kalanchoe pinnata and Kalanchoe daigremontiana,
which are cultivated in the province of Chiriqui, Republic of Panama. Phytochemicals components, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were studied. The composition of the obtained petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts was analyzed by phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was studied using three in vitro model systems (DPPH radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and superoxide radical scavenging activity). The anti-inflammatory activity of these species was studied using an in vivo model (ʎ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats). Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins and glycosides. The greatest radical inhibitory effect was observed in the DPPH model where the ethanolic extracts of both species developed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect, the K. pinnata extract reached a maximum inhibitory effect of 49.5 ± 5.6% (2000

Open Access Original Research Article

Adulticidal Activity of Coffee Essential Oils against Two Fruit Fly Species (Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions

Adalton Raga, Sara Braga e Silva, Ester Marques de Sousa, Nilson Borlina Maia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530393

The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal effects of green coffee oil (GCO) and roasted coffee oil (RCO) on two species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) include Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). Adult flies of both species were exposed to GCO and RCO at 2%, 3%, and 4% dilutions in water under Potter spray tower. In general, exposure to GCO and RCO at the three dilutions resulted in higher numbers of dead adults of both species compared to the control populations. The mortalities increased substantially between 60–90 minutes after initial exposure. The 2% GCO dilution reached a maximum of 77.0% corrected mortality of A. fraterculus at 360 minutes. In general, the toxic effect of coffee oils occurred more rapidly in C. capitata than in A. fraterculus. GCO (2% and 3%) and RCO (2%) showed promising results for fruit fly management.

Open Access Review Article

A Succinct Exploration on Bilwa (Aegle marmelos) Plant – A Literature Review

R. Sai Nath Pillai, R. Manu, T. S. Remesh Chandran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i530387

Aegle marmelos (L) Correa (family: Rutaceae) is used to treat a wide range of ailments. This plant has been around since prehistoric time. As it produces a number of alkaloids, all aspects of the plant, including fruits, leaves, bark, stem, and root, are used to treat variety of diseases. Antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties are some of the most important medicinal properties of Bilwa. Fruit-derived compounds have been shown to have biological promise in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, gastric ulcers, and hyperlipidaemia. Many experiments have been conducted on its medical properties and uses which demonstrate its importance in today's environment. The anatomy, distribution, dietary action, Ayurveda applications, and pharmacological properties of this plant is outlined in this review manuscript.