Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Bitter and Neem Leaves and their Potential as Antimicrobial Growth Promoter in Poultry Feed

Ruth T. S. Ofongo, Elijah I. Ohimain, Eustace A. Iyayi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430383

Gastrointestinal health challenges without in-feed antibiotics are a crucial concern to poultry farmers. Although, quite a few substitutes for antibiotics have emerged, phytogenics and antibiotic properties of medicinal plants cannot be overlooked with regard to control, good health and minimizing sub – clinical bacteria-induced infections by zoonotic enteropathogenic bacteria in poultry birds. Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves were collected early in the morning and oven dried to 15% moisture content. The non-essential oil was obtained by cold maceration method using methanol. Appropriate methods were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in the respective oils. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals showed that, saponins and terpenoids were highly detected (+++) in V. amygdalina. Saponins and terpenoids were slightly detected (+) in A. indica. Phenolic compounds were highly detected (+++) in both plants. Flavonoids were also identified (++) in both plants, but tannins were highly detected (+++) in A. indica. Quantitative analysis revealed a rather high concentration of complete phenolic content and overall flavonoid content in V. amygdalina. Total phenolic content of 44.76 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract and 57.21 mg Rutin equivalent / g of extract (total flavonoid content) was recorded in V. amygdalina and 25.77 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract (total phenolic content) and 24.45 mg Rutin equivalent /g of extract (total flavonoid content) in A. indica.

In conclusion, both plant extracts exhibited possibility as suitable substitutes to proprietary antibiotics that can be beneficial to gastrointestinal health and overall performance in animal nutrition.

Open Access Review Article

The Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Genus Hibiscus: A Review

Manish Kapoor, Gurdeep Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Chanchal Sharma, Kajal Batra, Davinderpal Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-37
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430382

The genus Hibiscus belongs to the mallow family, Malvaceae comprising of about 275 species growing in tropical and sub tropical areas. The various species of genus Hibiscus have been used as traditional medicine all over the world. There are numerous reports of their traditional medicinal uses in various countries like India, Nigeria, China, and Srilanka etc. to cure various ailments such as hypertension, cardiac diseases, stomach-ache, urine problems, skin diseases and many more. Based on the historical knowledge, various pharmacological and phytochemical studies on some species of the genus Hibiscus have been done. Nevertheless, there are no up-to-date articles published which can provide an overview of pharmacological effects of the genus Hibiscus. Therefore, the main objective of the review article is to provide a systematic comprehensive summary of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Hibiscus and to build up a correlation between its traditional ethano-botanical uses and pharmacological activities so as to find some advanced research opportunities in this field. The given information on the ethano-botanical uses, phytoconstituents and various medicinal properties of the genus Hibiscus was gathered from the online scientific databases through search in Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct, NCBI, Pubmed, Springer Link, Research Gate by using some keywords as. Besides these websites other published literature and unpublished Ph.D. thesis and M.Sc. dissertation were also consulted. Previously conducted research revealed that the genus contains good amount of phytoconstituents such as antioxidants, phytosterols, saponins, lignin, essential oils, glycosides, and anthocyanins etc. Presence of these bioactive compounds in the crude extracts of the plants make it suitable for various medicinal properties like anti inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-proliferative, anti-ulcer, hypersensitive, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and many more. Additionally, this review article showed that mainly two species of the genus i.e. H. rosa-sinensis and H. sabdariffa have been explored for their pharmacological activities. There are few reports on some other species like H. tiliaceous, H. microanthus, H. asper, H. acetosella. This review highlights the medicinal potential of the plant Hibiscus due to its unique blend of phytochemicals. These phytoconstituents can be further assessed and subjected to clinical trials for their proper validations. Although large amount of the data regarding pharmacological effects has already been added to the existing reservoir but still potential of certain species like H. radiatus, H. hirtus, H. moschetous, H. trionum and many more is not yet unveiled and can be considered as future prospects that need to be worked out. 

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