Open Access Short Research Article

Protective effect of Boysenberry Juice on Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-induced Renal Injury in Mice

Takashi Hashimoto, Maki Kiyota, Kazuki Kanazawa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430386

Boysenberry (Rubus loganbaccus × baileyanus Britt.) is one of the popular berries in Western countries. In the present study, the effect of the boysenberry juice on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced renal injury was investigated. ICR mice (7 weeks old, male) were ad libitum administered boysenberry juice for 1 week, and were intraperitoneally injected Fe-NTA (5 mg Fe/kg body weight) as an oxidant to renal. The consumption of boysenberry juice suppressed the Fe-NTA-increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in kidney and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). These results indicate that the consumption of boysenberry juice reduces the risk of oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Bitter and Neem Leaves and their Potential as Antimicrobial Growth Promoter in Poultry Feed

Ruth T. S. Ofongo, Elijah I. Ohimain, Eustace A. Iyayi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430383

Gastrointestinal health challenges without in-feed antibiotics are a crucial concern to poultry farmers. Although, quite a few substitutes for antibiotics have emerged, phytogenics and antibiotic properties of medicinal plants cannot be overlooked with regard to control, good health and minimizing sub – clinical bacteria-induced infections by zoonotic enteropathogenic bacteria in poultry birds. Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves were collected early in the morning and oven dried to 15% moisture content. The non-essential oil was obtained by cold maceration method using methanol. Appropriate methods were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in the respective oils. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals showed that, saponins and terpenoids were highly detected (+++) in V. amygdalina. Saponins and terpenoids were slightly detected (+) in A. indica. Phenolic compounds were highly detected (+++) in both plants. Flavonoids were also identified (++) in both plants, but tannins were highly detected (+++) in A. indica. Quantitative analysis revealed a rather high concentration of complete phenolic content and overall flavonoid content in V. amygdalina. Total phenolic content of 44.76 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract and 57.21 mg Rutin equivalent / g of extract (total flavonoid content) was recorded in V. amygdalina and 25.77 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract (total phenolic content) and 24.45 mg Rutin equivalent /g of extract (total flavonoid content) in A. indica.

In conclusion, both plant extracts exhibited possibility as suitable substitutes to proprietary antibiotics that can be beneficial to gastrointestinal health and overall performance in animal nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calophyllum brasiliense Extracts Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells

Michelle S. F. Correia, Anuska M. Alvares-Saraiva, Elizabeth C. P. Hurtado, Mateus L. B. Paciencia, Fabiana T. C. Konno, Sergio A. Frana, Ivana B. Suffredini

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 50-64
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430384

Aims: Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is linked to several mechanisms of cell growth control. The present work aimed at evaluating the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell by Calophyllum brasiliense.

Study design: The tests were performed in triplicates in the apoptosis assays and sextuplicates in the cytotoxic assays, to each group, and the data expressed the mean +/- standard deviations. The cytotoxicity IC50s were obtained based on nonlinear regression curve fit. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests were applied in the apoptosis analyses.

Place and duration of study: The work was done at the Center for Research in Biodiversity (Cell Culture Laboratory, and Phytochemistry Laboratory), and Research Center (Molecular Biology Laboratory), Paulista University, between Jan 2019 and Dec 2019.

Methodology: Two aqueous extracts, obtained from the stem (STE) and from the leaves (LFE) of Calophyllum brasiliense by a 24-h maceration, were submitted to a cytotoxic assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines at the concentrations of 0.01 µg/ml, 0.1 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml. They were also subjected to the evaluation of apoptosis and necrosis cell death induction at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml, after 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. Curcumin was used as a reference drug for both cytotoxic (50 mM, 5.0 mM, 0.5 mM, 0.05 mM and 0.005 mM ) and apoptosis/necrosis (12.5 μM, 25 μM and 50 μM / 6 h, 12 h and 24 h) assays. Apoptosis and necrosis were accessed by the use of annexin V and 7-AAD, in a two-channel flow cytometer.

Results: In terms of the cytotoxic activity, STE (IC50 7.86 µg/ml) was more toxic than LFE (IC50 74.35 µg/ml), and curcumin IC50 was 0.00159 µg/ml. STE induced 21.19 % and LFE, 20.63 %, in comparison to 13.4% of apoptosis induction by curcumin. The results of apoptosis induction in the cancer cells were achieved at 24 h, extract concentrations at 100 µg/ml.

Conclusion: Both the extracts, STE and LFE, were cytotoxic against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, and induced more apoptosis in MCF-7 cells than curcumin, suggesting that they are high potential sources of natural product-inducing apoptosis agents to be used against adenocarcinoma breast cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Leaves, Stems and Roots of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg.

Emmanuel N’Dri Koffi, Olivier Hugues Alain N’Guessan, Philippe Kessé N’Da, Ismael Sanga Ouattara, Séraphin Kouakou Konan, Augustin Amissa Adima

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 65-75
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430385

Aims: This work aims to compare the chemical composition and the antioxidant capacity of the leaves, stems and roots of Alchornea cordifolia.

Study design: The leaves, stems and roots of Alchornea cordifolia were harvested during the month of August 2020 in the botanical garden of the University Jean Lorougnon Guede in Daloa. After that, they were dried in the shade for 17 days. Subsequently, they were crushed and kept in jars in order to be sent to the Laboratory of Industrial Processes, Synthesis, Environment and New Energies (LAPISEN) of Yamoussoukro (Côte d'Ivoire), for analyzes.

Place and duration of study: This study was carried out during september to december 2020 in Laboratory of Industrial Processes, Synthesis, Environment and New Energies (LAPISEN) of Yamoussoukro (Côte d'Ivoire)

Methodology: Physicochemical parameters (pH, ° Brix, MS) and the mineral contents of leave, stem and root aqueous extracts were determined by classic methods. Then, phytochemical screening are carried out by TLC analysis followed by spectrophotometric assay of total polyphenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity.

Results: The results showed that the aqueous extract from A. cordifolia leaves, stems and roots are all acidic (pH ≤ 5.33). However, these extracts contain a low level of dry matter. The measured minerals (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, K, Fe; Cu and Zn) are present in these extracts at varying concentrations. The leaf extract is richer in Fe (8.28 ppm), Ca (1.71 ppm), Mn (1.17 ppm) and K (0.55 ppm). In contrast, the root extract contains more Na (18.38 ppm), Cu (0.75 ppm) and Mg (0.34 ppm). As for the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes, in the aqueous extract of all organs, except tannins, absent in the roots. However, the leaves have the highest content of polyphenols (256.67 mg.g-1 GAE) and flavonoids (92.75 mg.g-1 QE), as well as the best antioxidant capacity (204.23 µmol.L -1 TE).

Conclusion: The leaves, stems and roots of A. cordifolia contain practically the same chemical compounds with a few exceptions. However, the difference lies in the concentration of these compounds in the different extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Coriandrum sativum L. Seeds Cultivated in Afghanistan

Samira Jafari, Yoshihito Mori

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 82-92
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430388

Coriandrum sativum L. is an aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, originating in the Mediterranean region. C. sativum is widely cultivated worldwide and has nutritional and medicinal values. The C. sativum seeds contain an essential oil that is used in different industries like pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. This study aims to extract, analyze, and evaluate the antioxidant activity of C. sativum seed essential oil cultivated in Afghanistan. The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation (HD) extraction and analyzed by High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The HD extraction provided an essential oil yield of 0.16 % (v/w). Also, HPTLC analysis of the essential oil determined two components of the oil, linalool and myrcene. The quantification of linalool content and HPTLC method validation were determined using densitometric analysis. As a result, the linalool content was identified 60.06 %, and the HPTLC method proved as a valid method for analysis of the essential oil. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the essential oil was determined using DPPH radical scavenging assay and reported as IC50. The ascorbic acid utilized as the positive control, and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil evaluated in comparison with ascorbic acid. The IC50 of ascorbic acid and the essential oil were determined 0.02 ± 0.0004 (mg/ml) and 21.05± 0.284 (mg/ml), respectively. Thus, the essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid. This study is the first report on the extraction, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of C. sativum seed essential oil cultivated in Afghanistan.

Open Access Review Article

The Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Genus Hibiscus: A Review

Manish Kapoor, Gurdeep Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Chanchal Sharma, Kajal Batra, Davinderpal Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-37
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i430382

The genus Hibiscus belongs to the mallow family, Malvaceae comprising of about 275 species growing in tropical and sub tropical areas. The various species of genus Hibiscus have been used as traditional medicine all over the world. There are numerous reports of their traditional medicinal uses in various countries like India, Nigeria, China, and Srilanka etc. to cure various ailments such as hypertension, cardiac diseases, stomach-ache, urine problems, skin diseases and many more. Based on the historical knowledge, various pharmacological and phytochemical studies on some species of the genus Hibiscus have been done. Nevertheless, there are no up-to-date articles published which can provide an overview of pharmacological effects of the genus Hibiscus. Therefore, the main objective of the review article is to provide a systematic comprehensive summary of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Hibiscus and to build up a correlation between its traditional ethano-botanical uses and pharmacological activities so as to find some advanced research opportunities in this field. The given information on the ethano-botanical uses, phytoconstituents and various medicinal properties of the genus Hibiscus was gathered from the online scientific databases through search in Google, Google Scholar, Science Direct, NCBI, Pubmed, Springer Link, Research Gate by using some keywords as. Besides these websites other published literature and unpublished Ph.D. thesis and M.Sc. dissertation were also consulted. Previously conducted research revealed that the genus contains good amount of phytoconstituents such as antioxidants, phytosterols, saponins, lignin, essential oils, glycosides, and anthocyanins etc. Presence of these bioactive compounds in the crude extracts of the plants make it suitable for various medicinal properties like anti inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-proliferative, anti-ulcer, hypersensitive, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and many more. Additionally, this review article showed that mainly two species of the genus i.e. H. rosa-sinensis and H. sabdariffa have been explored for their pharmacological activities. There are few reports on some other species like H. tiliaceous, H. microanthus, H. asper, H. acetosella. This review highlights the medicinal potential of the plant Hibiscus due to its unique blend of phytochemicals. These phytoconstituents can be further assessed and subjected to clinical trials for their proper validations. Although large amount of the data regarding pharmacological effects has already been added to the existing reservoir but still potential of certain species like H. radiatus, H. hirtus, H. moschetous, H. trionum and many more is not yet unveiled and can be considered as future prospects that need to be worked out. 

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