Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Phosphide-Induced Hepato-Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: The Ameliorative Role of Curcumin from Curcuma longa Rhizome

Kemi F. Akinwunmi, Emmanuel B. Ofeniforo, Kehinde H. Fasunle

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330376

Globally used pesticides contains zinc phosphide (ZnP) which are toxic. This present study was carried out to investigate the potency of bioactive curcumin in ameliorating the toxicity of zinc phosphide on biochemical enzymes present in kidney and liver of Wistar rats. A total of 30 (120–150 g) male adult Wistar rats were used. Experimental animals were divided into five groups and treated as follows for a period of 21 days: Group I rats, serving as the control, orally received 1 ml/kg body weight of corn oil with administration of same volume of saline. Group II rats were orally administered Zinc phosphide at a dose of 4.57 mg/kg body weight (one-tenth LD50) in corn oil. Group III rats orally received curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Groups IV and V rats were orally administered curcumin at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively, 2 hours before administration of Zinc phosphide. At the end of the time interval, experimental animals were anesthesized with diethylether and organs (kidney and liver) were harvested for biochemical assays. The oral administration of Zinc phosphide at 4.57 mg/kg body weight for 21 days resulted in a significant increase in hepatic and nephridial malondialdehyde. This index of lipid peroxidation, was accompanied by decreased activity of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) followed by a drastic reduction in the non-enzymatic antioxidant indices of reduced glutathione when compared to control. Pre-administration of Curcumin significantly ameliorated zinc phosphide-induced hepatic and nephrotic effects by subduing oxidative stress indices and improving antioxidant status. The result of the present study shows that curcumin has a protective effect against zinc phosphide induced liver and kidney damage in male Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of Stigmasterol from Leaf Part of Crescentia alata Kunth (Bignoniaceae)

R. Abinaya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330377

The present investigation deals with the extraction, separation, isolation, identification, characterization and biological evaluation of the stigmasterol from methanolic extract on leaves of C. alata Kunth using bio-guided fractionation and spectral analytical methods. The biological activities investigated were antimicrobial and cytotoxicity. Leaf crude extract of C. alata obtained from 80% methanol was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethyl acetate fraction afforded a bioactive compound by bioassay-guided fractionation. The characterization of isolates was done by biochemical and spectral methods. The active fraction obtained and isolated compound were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compound on Hela cell line, estimated with the MTT assay. The ethyl acetate fraction has exhibited highest effective antimicrobial activities and the fraction afforded a compound stigmasterol. The compound isolated stigmasterol from leaf of C. alata showed strongest antimicrobial effect against all microbial strains were tested with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.95 to 125 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity studies indicated that the isolated stigmasterol possesses much potential against Hela (mammalian cancer) cell line. Overall, the stigmasterol compound was the most dynamic as far as the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the leaves of C. alata confirm the conventional utilization of this plant in treating different respiratory sufferings and its related manifestations. The properties of the bioactive phytochemical compound stigmasteol recommend that the powerful and wide range of antimicrobial and anticancer operators and may fill in as the lead compound in the advancement of novel restorative medications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Effect of Five Drying Methods on Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Potential and Organoleptic Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Rhizome

Yves M. T. Tientcheu, Ruth E. K. Dibacto, Ferdinand L. E. Edoun, Elsa F. K. Matueno, Alex D. K. Tchuenchieu, Yadang Germaine, Gabriel N. Medoua

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330378

Aims: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most popular and widely used spice, known for its health benefits. This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of a Handcrafted dryer (HCD) on the quality of ginger in comparison to the most common drying methods.

Methodology: Fresh ginger originating from 2 regions were dried using the following techniques: HCD; Air Drying (AD); Ventilator Oven (VO) at 50°C, 60°C and 80°C; Freeze Drying (FD) and Microwave drying (MD) at 700 and 900 W) methods. Dried products were ground and infused in hot water and the total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential through different mechanisms (DPPH radical, FRAP and TAC assays) as well as the sensory properties of the infusions were assessed.

Results: TFC of the samples significantly varied with regard to the origin of the Ginger. Infusions deriving from the dried ginger from HCD and VO at 80°C exhibited the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities. While the rise of temperature with VO led to an increase of TPC, it was rather a decrease that was observed with the rise of microwave power level but which did not have a significative effect on the antioxidant potential. No significant difference was noticed in the acceptance of infusions by consumers except MD samples, which received the lowest score by panelists.

Conclusion: Heat-based processes appears to be useful in the optimization of the nutritional value of dried ginger, and HCD appropriate for farmers as it is easy and not expensive to put into practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cannabis sativa L. and Justicia adhatoda L. Leaves Extract against Procured Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria In Vitro

Jyoti Chandola, Pooja Singh, Rishabh Garg, Narotam Sharma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330379

The scientific study of this research has been focused on synergistic antibacterial activity of two weed plants, Lantana camara L., Parthenium hysterophorus L. alongwith two medicinal plants, Cannabis sativa L., Justicia adhatoda L. against multi- drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Dried leaf powders of the plants were extracted using air-dried method followed by the ethanol- solvent extraction method for the crude extract of the leaves. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against three MDR bacteria, that is, one Gram positive bacteria- Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria- Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Out of 18 antibiotics tested against procured bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to 10 out of 10 tested antibiotics, Escherichia coli was resistant to 4 out of 12 tested antibiotics and Proteus mirabilis was resistant to 9 out of 10 tested antibiotics. The tested weed plants and the medicinal plants when combined together showed more zone of inhibition against multidrug resistant bacteria ( Two combinations of phytochemicals Lantana camara, Cannabis sativa and Lantana camara, Cannabis sativa, Justicia adhatoda, Parthenium hysterophorus showed maximum zones of inhibition, that is, 30 mm) as compared to when these plants were tested solitarily, showing pronounced antibacterial activity. These findings showed that the antibacterial activity enhanced when they were combined together and this potential could be used against various infectious diseases with more research and modification in this area. Weed plants also holds as much importance as the medicinal plants although not to that extent, but they clearly inhibit the growth of bacteria and this property of weeds along with the medicinal plants holds a promising future in treating many diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria on the pharmaceutical level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of NaCl-Induced Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

Abhishek Kumar, Khushbu Jain, Mahesh Kumar, Md. Shamim, Jitesh Kumar, Anil Kumar, Abhishek Prasad Sahu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330380

Comparative study about the salt-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation has been realised in primary root tissues for Tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) in order to evaluate their responses to salt stress. Salinity impacts in terms of root growth, H2O2 generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane destabilisation were more pronounced in roots. Salt treatment in form of NaCl was given to the roots of the tomato plants in hydroponics culture. Root length was measured by centimetre scale, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation was confirmed by spectrophotometer. Absorbance for H2O2 estimation was recorded at 480 nm whereas for Lipid peroxidation was done at 600nm. When the tomato plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl, it was observed that as the concentration of NaCl was increasing, there  was decreased root growth resulting in reduced root length and  proportionate increase in the amount of H2Oproduction level with increase in the concentrations of NaCl treatment upto 300mM Concentration and  Significant increase in Lipid peroxidation was observed with the increase in NaCl concentrations upto 500mM Concentration. Comparative response may be helpful in developing a better understanding of tolerance mechanisms to salt stress in Tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Regeneration from Direct and Indirect Organogenesis of Crescentia alata Kunth an Important Multipurpose Medicinal Tree

R. Abinaya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i330381

In this present work, an in-vitro regeneration protocol for Crescentia alata (C. alata) was developed using various explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) for direct and indirect regeneration. The direct organogenesis was established from nodes and internodes on MS medium supplemented with cytokinins and auxins. The indirect organogenesis via callus phase was obtained from leaf, nodes and internodes on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of PGRs. The high frequency shoot organogenesis were achieved directly from nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BAP+0.5 mg/L KIN +1.0 mg/L NAA. Indirect organogenesis callogenic frequency was optimized at the concentration of MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 5.0 mg/L IAA. The callus was obtained from all the explants were used, among these explants internodal explants gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins and auxins for indirect organogenesis experiment. Indirect organogenesis the highest number of shoot regeneration was obtained in MS Basal Medium with 4.0 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L KIN + 2.0 mg/L NAA from internodal explants. For root formation the regenerative shoots which were sub cultured on MS medium containing different ratios of auxins. The rooted plantlets were transferred successfully to the pots containing sterilized soil and were successfully hardened at greenhouse condition for 20 days then exposed to the natural environment. This is the first successful micropropagation report of an efficient and rapid in-vitro clonal propagation protocol for C. alata by direct and indirect shoot organogenesis through various explants, which can be employed for conservation of this important medicinal tree species as well as the utilization of an biologically important active biomolecules. This protocol can be very useful to obtain plants from various explants, without the requirement of meristematic regions, enabling the obtainment of a higher number of plants in short period.