Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical Study, Acute Toxicity and Fertility Potential Effect of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) on the Histology of Wistar Rats Testicles

Blahi Méa Adélaïde Nadia, Affy Mataphouet Emmanuel, Zougrou N’guessan Ernest, Kouakou koffi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230373

Sarcocephalus latifolius is a popular medicinal plant used in treatment of many ailments basically in West Africa and particularly in Ivory Coast. Thereby, this study aims to find out the major chemical groups in the aqueous leaf extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius, its acute toxicity and its fertility potential. In this perspective, a phytochemical study to determine chemical groups was carried out. Furthermore, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted according to OECD guideline 423, using three female rats sequentially. As for the fertility study, it was performed on the histology of the testes of forty albino rats of 60 days of age weighing between 130 g and 170 g and treated for 30 and 60 days, at doses of 250; 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight from the aqueous extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius. The phytochemical screaming of the aqueous leaf extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius revealed the presence of polyterpene sterols, polyphenols, flavonoids, quinonics and alkaloids. In addition, the acute oral toxicity assay did not reveal any signs of toxicity, morbidity or mortality at studied doses. Finally, the histology of testes of the albino rats treated with the plant extract showed a more intense spermatogenesis, seminiferous tubules and more developed interstitial tissue compared to control. To sum up Sarcocephalus latifolius, although rich in phytochemical compounds, might not be toxic in a single dose and might have androgenic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cajanus Cajan (l.) Millsp Aqueous Extracts against Melanoma Cell Line and their Proteases

E. M. G. F. Teixeira, R. E. Silva-López, B. R. A. Da Silva, A. P. G. A. Fontão, A. L. F. Sampaio

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230366

Aims: Extract proteins with protease inhibitor (PI) activity from fresh organs of Cajanus cajan, using aqueous systems; study the activity of melanoma secreted proteases; investigate inhibitory effect of C. cajan extracts on melanoma proteases; and evaluated the effect of the extract, with the most protease inhibitor activity, on melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28) viability.

Material and Methods: Extracts of C. cajan leaves, stems, and roots were prepared using different aqueous systems. Protein content was evaluated by Bradford method, protein profile by gel electrophoresis by Laemmli method and, extracts PI activity against trypsin, papain, and pepsin. Melanoma cell line was cultured in Dulbecco's medium, and secreted proteases was obtained from culture supernatant. Characterization of melanoma proteases included substrates activity, optimum pH, and effect of specific PIs and cations on protease activity. Anticancer activity was investigated using C. cajan extracts (containing PIs) and SK-MEL-28 extracellular fraction (containing proteases). Cytotoxic effect of extract was assayed on SK-MEL-28 cells line using methylthiazol tetrazolium method. CC-P was submitted to thin layer chromatography to identify alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins and terpenes.

Results: C. cajan extracts showed different protein contents and protein profiles in electrophoresis analysis. C. cajan organs presented PIs activities against serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteases. Leaf extract prepared using phosphate buffer (CC-P) and stems extract prepared with water (CC-CA) had the best inhibitory activities against trypsin (~58%). Pepsin was the lowest inhibited (11-29%) and papain was the most inhibited (14-100%). Protease activity of melanoma fraction was the highest using casein as substrate, and two proteins with 150 and 100 kDa with gelatinase activity. These proteases has maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 9.0, and was importantly inhibited by benzamidine, 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA, suggesting that serine and metalloproteases are secreted by SK-MEL-28 cells. CC-P was the most important inhibitor of melanoma proteases, and induced cytotoxicity on SK-MEL-28 cells in culture. Although there is correlation between melanoma protease inhibition and cell death, CC-P has secondary metabolites, as coumarins, flavonoids and terpenes that can have synergy of antitumor activity.

Conclusion: C. cajan extracts have serine, cysteine, and aspartic protease inhibitor activities. CC-P had the best inhibition on melanoma proteases and it was also cytotoxic to melanoma cell in culture. Therefore, these PIs can be important strategy for cancer treatment because tumor cells secrete proteases that are crucial to cancer progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used in the Management of Dermatological Disorders in Buyende and Kayunga Districts, Uganda

Jane Namukobe, Anthony Lutaaya, Savina Asiimwe, Robert Byamukama

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 15-40
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230367

This study was done to document medicinal plants used in the management of dermatological disorders. Documentation of plants is important for conservation especially of rare and endangered plant species. The study was done in Buyende and Kayunga districts in Uganda, between April and July 2017. Data was obtained using semi-structured questionnaires and group discussions, performed on 63 respondents (33 females; 30 males) who were purposively selected because of their expertise in plant use. The study recorded 111 plant species that belong to 46 plant families for treatment of 30 skin disorders. The dominant life form was herb (41%), while leaves were the most used parts (59 %). Majority of plants (72%) were harvested from their natural habitats. Family Fabaceae contributed the highest number of species (20). Milicia excelsa was recorded to be threatened with extinction. The most cited diseases were skin rash (14%), wounds (12%), syphilis (9%), allergy (9%) and ring worm (7%). The plant species with high percent respondent knowledge were Hoslundia opposita, cited by 83% of the people; Bidens pilosa (76%) and Jatropha carcus (56%) all for treating wounds. Topical application (90%) was the common mode of administering herbal remedies, while decoction was least used to prepare remedies. Plants are important in the management of dermatological disorders by local communities in the study areas. The diversity of medicinal plant species used in these areas is based on the rich traditional knowledge of the local communities. There is need to domesticate the rare and threatened medicinal plant species to avoid extinction. Plant species with high percent respondent knowledge can be considered for further studies to identify key active compounds important to develop natural based skin care products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunomodulatory Activity on Specific Immune Function in Albino Mice Exposed to Extract and Fractions of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM. Hernández Roots

Oghenesuvwe D. Warren, Bonaventure C. Obi, Uchenna C. Abonyi, Theophine C. Akunne

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230371

Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM. Hernández popularly called “Elugelu” belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is reportedly used in traditional medicine as anti-diarrhoea, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic and in management of autoimmune disorders. The immunomodulatory activity of methanol root extract and fractions of Zapoteca portoricensis was evaluated using three experimental models: neutrophil adhesion, haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre and delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) of an immune response in mice. Five (5) groups of mice (n=5) were used; group I was the normal control; group II was the standard control (levamisole, 2.5 mg/kg) while groups IIIA–C, IVA–C and VA–C received graded doses (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) of methanol extract (ME), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF), respectively. Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; 0.1 ml) were injected subcutaneously to sensitize the animals. The study results showed that the methanol fraction (MF) exhibited the highest percentage (46.12%) in neutrophil adhesion followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) (37.06%) at 100 mg/kg dose, respectively, compared with the normal control. The highest percentage increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was found to be ME (85.19%, 43.20%), EF (91.53%, 102.67%) and MF (128.31%, 111.89%) at 50 mg/kg dose, respectively compared to the normal control. The EF at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg produced the highest percentage inhibition (56.57%, 58.33%) in DTH response, respectively, followed by MF (42.46%) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Oral administration of Z. portoricensis exhibited immunomodulatory effects on specific components of the immune system in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cichorium intybus Inhibits Doxorubicin- Induced Myocardial fibrosis in Wistar Rats Via Inflammatory Markers and Collagen Repression

Vishwadeep Shelke, Ghanshyam Jadhav, Amol Mhaske, Vidya Shirsath, Sagar Kamble, Awais Sayyad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230372

Many allopathic medicines demand to remedy for myocardial fibrosis but fail to fulfill the purpose, because of side effects and high cost. Herbal medicine has fewer side effects and natural herbs are considered safe when compared with synthetic medicines. The present study aimed to study the effect of extract of Cichorium intybus on experimentally induced myocardial fibrosis in Wistar rats. The objective of the present study was to find out the possibilities of the use of Cichorium intybus as a supportive/ protective medicine and to explore the possible toxicities of Cichorium intybus in these models. Myocardial fibrosis was induced by Doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg, i.p. Thrice a week) rats. Blood pressure, Collagen levels, Left ventricle weight index were effectively reduced in animal groups treated with the extract. The effect of extracts was studied on various oxidative stress markers like SOD, CAT, LOP, and NO. Extract of Cichorium intybus was shown significantly decreased in blood pressure and significantly shows the antioxidant effect when compared to the hypertensive control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Some Marketed Herbal Cosmetics in Port Harcourt on Renal Parameters of Rabbits

I. N. Thompson, E. S. Bartimaeus, E. O. Nwachuku, H. Brown, E. S. Agoro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 70-77
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i230375

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three commonly marketed herbal cosmetics in Port Harcourt on the renal parameters in rabbits.

Study Design:  This study is an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Animal House, Applied and Environmental Biology Department, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between April 2020 and November 2020.

Methodology: A total of 48 rabbits were used for the study. They were divided into four groups with twelve rabbits in each group. Four rabbits from each group were treated for thirty, sixty and ninety days respectively. All the rabbits were given feed and tap water ad-libitum. Using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline for volume selection, 0.5ml/kg of Samples A, B, C and D were each applied to 5cm by 5cm scrapped dermal Forsa of the rabbits in each group every morning for the respective treatment periods stated above. At days thirty, sixty and ninety, respectively, four rabbits from each group were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia. Blood samples were collected from the rabbits at intervals, 30days, 60days and 90days. The kidneys were harvested at 90 days from the rabbits. The blood was collected to test sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea, creatinine, KIM-1 and kidney for histological analysis. GraphPad Prism v.7.0 was used for statistical analysis and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that Potassium level was significantly higher (p<.05) from day 30 for group A compared to control, group B and group C. This is attributed to group A having a higher level of cadmium and arsenic compared to the other groups.  The urea and creatinine result for group A was significantly higher by day 30 (p<.05) compared to control with group B and group C. Whereas calcium became significantly lower at day 60. With chloride significantly higher (p<.05) at day 60. Early signs of toxicity to the Kidney were identified from the significant effect on the urea, creatinine, KIM-1 and histology results. The continued use of these products contaminated by these heavy metals will release them slowly into the body of recipients and which will invariably damage the kidney.

Conclusion: The continued use of these products contaminated by these heavy metals will release them slowly into the body of recipients and which will invariably damage the kidney. Early signs of toxicity to the Kidney were identified from the significant effect on the urea, creatinine, KIM-1 and histology results.