Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Stem Bark Methanol Extract of Picralima nitida

O. V. Ikpeazu, M. I. Ezeja, K. K. Igwe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130360

Aims: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Picralima nitida stem bark methanol extract (PNSBE).

Study Design: The study was carried out using in vivo (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and egg albumin-induced paw oedema) and in vitro (Human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assay) models in rat.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria from March to July, 2020.

Methodology: The extract was used at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg while diclofenac (20 mg/kg) was used as the standard reference drug for the in vivo study (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and egg albumin). For the in vitro study (red blood cell haemolysis), the extract was used at the concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg/ml while diclofenac 250 µg/ml was used.

Results: In the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, the extract at the doses used and the reference drug significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the paw edema in the rats at 1 hour in a dose dependent manner. Also, in the egg albumin model, the paw oedema of treated rats was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by PNSBE dose dependently reducing the mean rat paw oedema from 0.99 ± 0.12 to 0.61 ± 0.06 at the first hour. There was also a concentration dependent inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis by the extract in the HRBC membrane stabilization assay.

Conclusion: Picralma nitida demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Vegetative Propagation of Elionurus latiflorus (Nees Ex Steud.) Hack

Ana Gabriela Buglia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130361

Aims: Elionurus latiflorus (Nees ex Steud.) Hack. commonly known as Brazilian lemongrass is a medicinal plant native to Brazil. Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of number of tillers/vegetative unit of transplants on biomass production in a period of 480 days.

Study design: The experiment was conducted by using completely randomized design with three treatments i.e. plants transplanted with one tiller (T1), plants transplanted with 2 tillers (T2) and plants transplanted with 3 tillers (T3). These treatments were replicated eight times where transplantations were done in polybags which containing mixture of soil, dung and carbonized rice in 3:1:1 ratio. These polybags were kept for 160 days in greenhouse and pruning was done in every plant by maintaining 5 cm of the plant biomass for its regrowth.

Duration of Study: This experiment was carried out over 16 months.

Methodology: Every plant seedling was submitted to a cut maintaining approximately 5 cm of the plant biomass for its regrowth. After each pruning, survival percentage, increment in the number of tillers propagated, rise of plants height, fresh as well as dry mass weight were evaluated.

Results: Lower initial number of main stems influenced survival only in the early growth phase after transplantation with a loose of 73% of the population transplanted with an unique main stem. Survival kept a constant value without plant mortalities in the successive 320 days evaluated after the first pruning. The number of tillers propagated weren’t affected significantly by the number of initial main stems in a single period. In the other hand, in the comprehensive period of the experiment there was a change with mean variation from 9.68 to 36.75. Height decreased the mean from 102.82 cm to 26.66 cm. Fresh and Dry Plant Mass increased from 5.19 g/plant to 11.47 g/plant and from 2.17 g/plant to 4.93 g/plant respectively, P˂0.05.

Conclusion: This study even if elementary represents a required approach for the domestication of the species avoiding the waste of time and plant material for successive propagation works. It represents a suggestion for further research work in greenhouses with this specie for a validation of these results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oils Variability of Pectis elongata in the Amazon and an Overview of the Neotropical Pectis Species

Lais T. Massing, Chieno Suemitsu, Sandra Layse F. Sarrazin, Agnaldo Tremea, José Guilherme S. Maia, Rosa Helena V. Mourão

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130362

Aims: Pectis species, belonging to Asteraceae, are aromatic and medicinal herbaceous plants, distributed in the Americas, the West Indies, and the Pacific islands, with lemon, cumin, or oregano aroma, used in infusions to treat several diseases or as spices.

Methodology: In this study, the composition of Pectis elongata from the Amazon was correlated with other Neotropical Pectis oils, including their traditional uses and biological properties. Pectis elongata oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS.

Results: Citral (39.1% of neral and 47.7% of geranial), perilla aldehyde (51.7% to 81.8%), and limonene (33.7% to 43.7%) were identified as their primary constituents of the Pectis elongata oils from the Amazon. It is assumed the existence of at least two chemotypes for the variability of the oils of P. elongata: Citral (neral plus geranial) and perilla aldehyde plus limonene. The main C10-skeletal monoterpenes found in Pectis oils can be depicted according to their biosynthetic pathways: neral and geranial arranged in an acyclic-type skeleton, and limonene, perilla aldehyde, cumin aldehyde, carvone, p-cymene, and thymol in a p-menthane-type skeleton.

Conclusion: There is a particular interest in the world's citral-rich essential oils, such as Pectis elongata oil and other similar Pectis oils, given their application in human health and food preservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya

Benard M. Isaiah, John M. Onyari, Leonidah K. Omosa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130364

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Sub Acute Toxicity of the Stem Bark of Andira inermis

Maxwell Osaronowen Egua, Florence Chimezie Nwinyi, Ode Julius Okwoche, Onakpa Micheal Monday, Akande Motunrayo Ganiyat, Samson Eneojo Abalaka, Mikail Hudu Garba, Akumka David Dezi, Adamu Mohammed

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 57-71
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130368

The aqueous methanolic Andira inermis stem bark extract was screened in evaluation of its potential for its toxic effect in a 28 days study using the oral route only. The sub acute study was carried out in Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each; control group (a) received distilled water while the aqueous methanolic Andira inermis stem bark extract treatment groups (b), (c), and (d), received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively, for a period of 28 days, with their intake of feeds, water and signs of abnormality observed. At the end of the sub acute study, the rats were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical and haematological evaluation. And the visceral organs (liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen) excised for weighing and patho-morphological examination. The aqueous methanolic Andira inermis stem bark extract was found to; reduce the intake of water weekly, drop intake of feeds; significantly increased the red blood cell count (RBC), the haemoglobin concentration (HB), as well as the pack cell volume (PCV). The renal indices, showed the electrolytes sodium and chloride of the treatment groups (b, c and d) to be significantly different from the control. Urea was noticed to have reduce significantly and creatinine insignificantly. The organs weights across the Andira inermis treatment groups were noticed to be insignificantly (P › 0.05) different from the control for all the organs sampled (Lungs, Liver, Heart and Spleen) except for the kidney (organ weight which was noticed to have increased significantly). The patho-morphologies of the organs showed the heart to be normal, the kidney was normal in the control and the other treatment groups 100 mg 400 mg and 200 mg but a rat (an outlier) in one of the 200 mg group was noticed with tubular necrosis; the liver indicated a non concentration-dependent hepatitis while the lungs and the spleen presented an infective process.  It was concluded that, the aqueous methanolic extract of Andira inermis is a safe medicinal plant with the capacity to; raise red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (HB) as well as the pack cell volume (PCV); proffers a nephro- protective property; shrunken spleen; have a hepato-protective property and as well was non toxic to the heart and lungs. These findings warrants further pharmacognostic efficacy experimental research to harness the array of benefits of Andira inermis as discovered in this study.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Plants in Physical Exercise: A Review

Nikole Costa Dias, Natália Pandolfi Marinho, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Claudia Rucco Penteado Detregiachi, Mauro Audi, Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Rogério Leone Buchaim, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Elen Landgraf Guiguer

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2021/v32i130358

Background: The use of medicinal plants may have an effective action on the performance of athletes.

Aims: This review aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of medicinal plants and some phytocompounds on physical performance.

Methodology: MEDLINE/PUBMED and EMBASE were consulted following the PRISMA guidelines.

Results: Panax ginseng increases the anti-fatigue effect, decreases the stress promoted by the physical exercise, and improves muscular function through gene expression enhancement. Arnica montana has a crucial anti-inflammatory action showing relief of muscular pain a. Zingiber officinale has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic role on muscular pain, and it can be used to speed up the recovery of muscular strength after intense activity. Ephedra sinica is related to thermogenic and sympathomimetic effects, being able to increase the energetic state. Capsaicin increases the energetic expenditure due to fat oxidation, promotes the anti-fatigue effect, and enhances the athlete’s resistance. Caffeine has ergogenic importance related to its antioxidant capacity, and it improves mental alertness condition.

Conclusion: The nutritional supplementation with products derived from medicinal plants may be an efficient alternative to improve the athlete’s performance, being a natural substitute for synthetic supplements, which usually are forbidden in competitions.