Open Access Minireview Article

Bio-active Compounds (Curcumin, Allicin and Gingerol) of Common Spices used in Indian and South-east Asian Countries Might Protect against COVID-19 Infection: A Short Review

Jawed Alam, Tahziba Hussain, Sanghamitra Pati

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 65-78
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030363

Presently, our world is suffering with COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS- CoV-2. The high rate of mutation in SARS- CoV-2 helps viruses to become resistance against pre-existent anti-viral medications. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 infection except some vaccines. Curcumin, Allicin and Gingerol are natural bioactive compounds having anti-viral, anti-inflamatory, anti-pyretic, anti-fibrotic properties and were used as spices in food in South East Asian and Indian subcontinent that could be a potential treatment for COVID-19 disease. This review will help in understanding the biology and potential of bioactive compounds present in turmeric, garlic and ginger as therapeutic against COVID-19 infection. Computational study suggested that gingerol, curcumin, and allicin showed good interaction with proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 receptor of host cell and might have an important role in impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. Clinical trials have been conducted for nanocurcumin and gingerol. The fatality rate of people from South East Asia and Indian subcontinent eating highly spicy food is less as compared to people from America and Europe eating less spicy food. Further, this review will help people to do research on curcumin, allicin and gingerol against the treatment of COVID-19. All of the spices are commercially available, edible and might be used as precautionary home remedies against COVID-19.

Open Access Minireview Article

Role of Phytocompounds En Route Blood-brain Barrier in Cerebral Ischemia

Debjani Nath, Nasima Khanam, Ashutosh Ghosh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 104-115
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030370

Aims: Cerebral ischemia is a condition that occurs when the blood vessels in the brain are occluded. Subsequent pathophysiological changes include critical structural and functional damage to the blood-brain barrier. Since remedies for restoring the blood-brain barrier are lacking, alternative methods are important. This study aims to discuss the potential role of phytochemicals in ameliorating blood-brain barrier inflammation and hyperpermeability.

Methodology: This literature review is based on information available in open source databases for the scientific community.

Results: Phytochemicals offer a large resource for neuroprotective cure. Different categories of phytochemical compounds have provided safer and accessible means of medication. A number of phytochemicals have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The respective mechanisms of action have also been discovered for many. Phytochemicals generally inhibit the classic inflammatory signalling molecules, in addition to other pathways. Phytochemicals also strengthen the tight junctional complexes in the blood-brain barrier. Thus phytochemicals substantially improve the affected blood-brain barrier after cerebral ischemia.

Conclusion: Phytochemicals possess useful properties directed towards the healing of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral ischemia and further research may elevate phytochemicals as approved therapeutics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Organic Extracts of Mahogany Seeds

. Assaduzzaman, Md. Ziaul Amin, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Md. Rasel Uddin, Md. Shohanuzzaman, Pritylata Mandal, Bristy Amy Karmoker, Md. Raihan Dipu, Md. Rashed Nejum

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030352

The perception of normal medicine is changing, and the use of traditional or herbal medicine increasing worldwide due to our harmonious nature of the biological system. Many parts of the plants possess an impressive array of medicinal benefits, mahogany seed is one of them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity of organic extracts of mahogany seeds. For determination of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity disk diffusion and brine shrimp lethality bioassay were used. DPPH free radical test were performed for evaluation of antioxidant activity. Ethanol, n-hexane and aqueous extracts were examined with the total number of 10 bacterial strain. Here, ethanol extract showed higher antimicrobial activity than n-hexane and aqueous extract for both gram positive and negative bacteria. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay LC50 values were 82 μg/ml, 95 μg/ml and 93 μg/ml for ethanol, n-hexane and aqueous extracts respectively. The scavenging DPPH free radicals were found to be concentration dependent. The LC50 value was measured at 140µg/ml, 160µg/ml and 180µg/ml for ethanol, n-hexane and aqueous extract. The results of this study indicated that the mahogany seeds can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and Cytotoxic compounds which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses and cell culture assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey on Medicinal Plants for the Dengue Hemolytic Infections in Selected Regions in Sri Lanka

Malitha Aravinda Siriwardhene, Devika Dharshani Attygalle, Vajira Seneviratne, Wathsala Priyadarshanie, Dayawansa Bandaranayake

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 8-26
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030353

Aims: To conduct an Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants and, to make an inventory of plant species used in the treatment of Dengue Hemolytic Infection in Deshiya Chikithsa (an autochthonous traditional system of medicine) in Sri Lanka.

Study Design:  This was a quantitative and qualitative ethnopharmacological survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Eleven selected districts in Sri Lanka covering Western, Sothern, and Mountain hill rages of the country, between January 2018 and January 2019.

Methodology: Semi-structured validated questionnaires were administered to 173 traditional practitioners in selected eleven districts of Sri Lanka. Plants were categorized based on plant parts used and method of preparation and were used to analyze and summarize the collected data. Quantitative ethnobotanical tools used to claim and prove the use of medicinal plants for Dengue Hemolytic Infection were Frequency index (FI), Use Value for one species ( ) and the species Use Value index for one informant (UVIF).

Results: The survey identified 180 plant species belongs to 76 families. Approximately 33.6% of the plant species identified were used as air-dried flowers and 30.0% of plants are prepared by aqueous decoction. The most used plants were Carica papaya L. (43.9), Coriandrum sativum L. (37.0), Mollugo cerviana L. (34.1), and Zingiber officinale L. (31.2). As calculated by Use Value for one species, Carica papaya L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Mollugo cerviana L., were reported to be of the highest  value above 0.25. There were 5.5% plant species with above 0.20 of  value, and 6.1% plant species were above 0.20 species Use Value index for one informant (UVIF). This signifies the highest relative use of these plants among the respondents and the highest number of uses of those species in the treatment of Dengue hemolytic infection.

Conclusion: According to the analysis, it can be concluded that medicinal plants identified in this study are reported here for the first time concerning their use for Dengue Infection except Carica papaya L. Therefore, this documented information on the medicinal plants used in Deshiya Chikithsa system of medicine in Sri Lanka may be used as baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preventive Effect of Ethanol Extract of Red Spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) on Diet-induced Obese Zebrafish

Ari Yuniarto, Aisyah Zavira Putri, Nita Selifiana, I. Ketut Adnyana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030354

Background: Nowadays obesity recognized as chronic or non-communicable disease. Pathophysiology of obesity caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Obesity was known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate activity of ethanol extract of red spinach (EERS) to prevent obesity in diet-induced zebrafish.

Materials and Methods: Acclimatization period for zebrafish was carried out for 2 weeks. After the acclimatization, zebrafish were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 in each group) such as normal group (negative control); obese group (positive control); standard drug (orlistat 4,5 µg/ml); EERS group (50 µg/ml); EERS group (100 µg/ml); and EERS group (200 µg/ml). During a period of 4 weeks, normal group received a standard diet and didn’t received EERS administration. Positive control group received Artemia. Treated group received Artemia and were combined by administration of EERS. To determine obesity criteria we calculated of zebrafish BMI.

Results: Based on BMI calculation, EERS 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml showed a preventive effect on obesity compared to the positive control group. In addition, EERS 50 µg/ml was able to reduce BMI lower than the other extract groups.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that EERS 50 µg/ml has strength preventive effect on diet-induced obese zebrafish. This effect might be influenced by the presence of phytochemical compounds of extract such as flavonoid, saponins, and tannins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microscopic Features, Mineral Contents, Anti-sickling, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Stem Bark of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Ex Poiret (Hypericaceae)

Florent Biduaya Mukeba, Johnny Bopopi Mukoko, Manix M. Mayangi, Myriam Mukadi Ngondo, Patience Mpia Ngelinkoto, Jérome V. Bamba, Fanfan Kitwa, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Paulin K. Mutwale, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Nadège K. Ngombe, Pius T. Mpiana, Théophile F. Mbemba Mbemba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 33-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030355

Aims: This study addressed the identification of bioactive compounds, the determination of mineral content and the evaluation of the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of aqueous extract from stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre d’Etudes des Substances Naturelles d’Origine Végétale (CESNOV), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa and Faculty of Sciences, National Pedagogic University in DRC, between October 2018 and January 2021.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was evaluated by chromatographic methods (TLC and HPLC), the mineral composition by ICP-AES and the antioxidant activities using ABTS and DPPH assays, the antibacterial activity against four bacteria strains using the micro-dilution method; and the in vitro anti-sickling activity by the Emmel test.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the abundance in this plant of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and triterpenoids. The extract contains sodium, iron, selenium and zinc in proportions of 955.40 ppm, 369.65 ppm, 375.70 ppm and 44.79 ppm respectively as well as copper, chromium and other elements. The antioxidant potential of the stem bark infusion extract from H. madagascariensis, evaluated by the ABTS and DPPH tests, showed very high antioxidant activity due to this free radical scavenging capacity linked to IC50 values of 3.08 ± 0.19 µg/mL (ABTS) and 3.53 ± 0.22 µg/mL (DPPH). The antibacterial sensitivity testing with MIC determination performed on a strain isolated from a sickle cell patient and four reference strains showed the MIC values of the extract ranged from 31.25 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. The lowest MIC value was observed on S. aureus ATCC 25923 while the highest MIC value was obtained on Enterococcus spp Clinical.

Conclusion: The stem bark extract of H. madagascariensis showed high anti-sickling activity at 10.42 µg/mL, which may be due to its phytochemical constituents such as saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids Obtained results could justify the efficacy of recipes from stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis in the management of various infections in traditional medicine and anti-sickle cell disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Two New Polyphenols from the Anti-Diabetic Fraction of Pod Extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz

Kolade Olatubosun Faloye, Samson Oluwaseyi Famuyiwa, Marcus Durojaye Ayoola, Derek Tahton Ndinteh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030356

This study was planned and executed to validate the anti-diabetic ethno-medicinal claim of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Fabaceae) pods and the isolation of potential chemical compounds responsible for the activity.The anti-diabetic activity of the extract was assayed using oral glucose tolerance test and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic rats. The partition fractions of the extract were evaluated for their anti-hyperglycaemic activity using oral glucose tolerance test. The most active fraction was subjected to chromatographic separations that led to the isolation and characterisation of two new polyphenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized using IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques.The extract gave comparable (p>0.05) activity to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg at 4 h in oral glucose tolerance test and streptozotocin induced diabetic model on day 21. The most active ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg) elicited comparable activity to the positive control at 0.5-4 h with blood glucose reduction of 52.9 % as compared with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) of 38.9 % at 4 h. The isolated compounds were identified to be 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol and 3-(4-methanetriol-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-3',4',5',5,7-pentahydroxyflavanonol.The significant anti-diabetic property shown by the pods of C. pulcherrima justified its anti-diabetic ethno-medicinal use and the two new polyphenolic compounds isolated from its most active fraction could have contributed to the observed activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Steroidal Compounds from Plant Tribulus terristris

Sagar A. Nalawade, Manisha S. Badhe, Manohar G. Chaskar, Shirish S. Pingale

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 57-64
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030359

In the present study three steroidal compounds, Stigmasterol, Cholesterol and Stigmasterol glucoside were isolated from the acetone extract of plant Tribulus terrestris L. with the help of column chromatography and TLC techniques. The isolated steroidal compounds were characterized using both proton and carbon-13 NMR.Zygophyllaceae

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Spilanthes acmella and Chlorhexidine (0.2%) Mouth Rinses on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count in Children

Sajeela Ismail, Sajid Ahamed, Nisha Elizabeth John, Ameera Ahmed Ismail

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030365

In the wake of an increased interest in finding natural alternatives for chemical medicinal products, this study assesses and compares the effects and acceptance of Spilanthes acmella, a widely used plant in various traditional systems of medicine, with Chlorhexidine (0.2%) mouth rinse on the dental caries causing pathogen Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of children. The study included 40 healthy children in the age group of 8-12 years based on inclusion and extrusion criteria. In the beginning of the study, non-stimulated whole salivary samples were tested for the baseline count of colony forming units (CFU) of Streptococcus mutans using Mitis Salivarius Agar supplemented with potassium tellurite. The same process was repeated 24 hours after 15 days of regular use of mouth rinses twice daily. Results showed that there was statistically highly significant decrease in CFU in the post rinse phase in both the groups. S. acmella showed greater acceptance by study subjects when compared with the Chlorhexidine mouth rinse. It can be concluded based on the results of this study that S. acmella has beneficial effects against S. mutans and can be a potential option for preventive measures against dental caries, although more studies are needed for its validation.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacognostic Properties of Quisqualis indica Linn: Against Human Pathogenic Microorganisms: An Insight Review

Braja Sundar Barik, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 87-103
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i2030369

India has a large repository of medicinal plants that are used in traditional medical treatments. Several medicinal plants are useful for treating common ailments and some of the plants include Amla (Emblica cinalis), Ashoka (Saraca asoca), Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Sarpa Gandha (Rauwolfia serpentina), Sandalwood (Santalum album), Indian birthwort (Aristolochia indica L.), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Neem (Azardirchata indica), Vringraj (Eclipta alba), Grhit kumara (Aloe vera), Harida (Terminalia chebula) and Madhumalati (Quisqualis indica), Catnip (Nepeta cataria), Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum), Sage (Salvia officinalis); etc. Quisquails indica commonly known as the Madhu Malati, is a vine with red flower clusters and is found in abundance in India. It shows a wide range of remarkable medicinal properties. Over the last two decades, large scale research has been conducted to identify bio-active constituents of Quisqualis indica therapeutic prospects. This review summarizes the pharmacognostic properties of Quisqualis indica Linn. Against human pathogenic microorganisms. Several authors have reviewed the medicinal properties of Quisqualis indica Linn.but our review summarizes the anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-pyretic, anti-helminthic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and immuno-modulatory properties. It would be useful to students, academicians, microbiologists, as it reduces the need for detailed searching. It serves the purpose of quick reference.