Open Access Original Research Article

Sabicea brasiliensis Wernham: Antioxidant Activity, Proliferative Effect and Modulation of Vascular Adenine Nucleotides Metabolism

Douglas Souza Oliveira, Mikaelle Costa Correia, Bruna Juber de Araújo, Fernanda Cardoso da Silva, Paula Marynella Alves Pereira Lima, Marcos de Souza Gomes, Thaise Gonçalves de Araújo, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1930344

Aims: Study addressed the antioxidant activity (AA) of Sabicea brasiliensis roots crude extract (CE), ethyl acetate (EAF), and hydro-methanolic (HMF) fractions, and its impact on cell viability and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in vascular A7r5 cells.

Materials and Methods: AA of CE, EAF and HMF were determined by the inhibition of the DPPH and ABTS radicals. Total phenolic content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteau. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5; 125; 250 and 500 μg·mL-1) of EAF and HMF after 24, 48 and 72 h. Ectonucleotidase activities were evaluated by colorimetric methods after 48 h EAF or HMF treatment.

Results: The highest AA was observed for CE (76%), followed by EAF (46%) and HMF (23%). Phenolic content followed the same pattern. After 48 h, EAF increased A7r5 vascular cells viability by 40%, 40%, 62% and 25% at distinct concentrations, respectively; while HMF augmented it by 50% (500 μg·mL−1). Finally, after 48 h EAF (500 μg·mL−1) decreased about 50% of ATP and ADP metabolism while HMF inhibited 56 and 59% the hydrolysis of NPP substrate (at 125 and 250 μg·mL−1).

Conclusion: Study confirmed the high AA of S. brasiliensis, which influences vascular cells proliferation and purines metabolism, pointing to potential cellular pathways that may support the popular use of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation and Anti-Microbial Activity of Clausena anisata on Cariogenic and Periodontopathic Bacteria

Ashu Michael Agbor, Kuete Pierre Fotsing, Suzy Hermine Dountio, Ntungwen Charles Fokunang, Sudeshni Naidoo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1930345

Clausen aanisata is used in African traditional medicine to treat a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases. Infectious diseases are a major public health problem especially in developing countries where resistance to commonly used antibiotics is growing exponentially. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Clausena anisata on cariogenic and periodonthopatic bacteria. This was a laboratory experimental study using macerated hydroethanolic extracts of the stem and leaves of Clausena anisata in a water-ethanol mixture (30:70) for 48 hours. Phytochemical screening revealed flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, coumarins, phenols, triterpenes and saponosides, these being more abundant in the leaves. The antibacterial activity of the hydroethanolic extracts was evaluated against different clinically isolated strains of three Gram negative (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitan, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia) and two Gram positive (Streptococcus mutans and Latobacillusspp) bacteria. Polyphenols found more in the leaves extract was estimated at 62.8 mgTAE/g against 36.8 mgTAE/g in the stem bark extract. The study revealed that the leaves extract had bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity on isolated strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitan and Fusobacterium nucleatum being the most susceptible with MICs of 50 mg/ml whereas the stem bark showed bacteriostatic activity on all isolated strains with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitan being the most susceptible with MIC of 50 mg/ml. The antimicrobial action of the plant could be exploited in formulation of mouth washes and other medications in the management of oral infections like periodontitis and tooth dacay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Funchicórea®, a Traditional Brazilian Herbal Complex, on Intestinal Motility in Healthy and Constipated Rodents

Valéria L. Assis, Ana C. M. F. Veras, Priscilla M. P. Maciel, José G. F. Albuquerque, Carmem Zancanella, Jose Luiz Ritto, Islania Giselia Albuquerque Araújo, Robson C. Veras, Isac A. Medeiros

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1930347

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The traditional herbal medicinal product Funchicórea® has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of intestinal colic and constipation in newborns. However, no scientific data on the herbal product to prove its efficacy is available.

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the laxative and spasmolytic actions of Funchicórea®.

Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Swiss mice (Mus musculus) of both sex, were used. In vivo pharmacological assays were performed to evaluate the stimulating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, and in vitro studies to verify its spasmodic activity.

Results: Funchicórea® increased the motility of the small intestine in male mice at doses of 100 mg/kg (161.66±14.86 %, n=6) and 200 mg/kg (151.04±17.17 %, n=6) compared to control (100.00±10.49 %, n=6). However, this drug did not induce any change in intestinal transit in female mice. The intestinal transit of male mice treated with loperamide (3 mg/kg/day, during three days) was reduced 66.25±7.49 % (n=8) compared to the control group (100.00±5.16%, n=8) and we observed the normalization of the intestinal transit in constipated animals treated with Funchicórea® 100 mg/Kg (98.42±6.33 %, and 200 mg/kg (99.32±8.47%, n=7). Similar results were observed in the quantification for 24 hours of male and female rats faeces constipated by loperamide (3 mg/kg/day three days), however, in both animals groups treated with Funchicórea® 100 mg/kg (1.24±2.90 g, male; 3.60±0.80 g, female, n=6) and 200 mg/Kg (8.70±2.01 g, male, 10.03±1.30 g, female, n=6) the levels of faeces returned to basal values compared to constipated group (4.01±1.43 g, male; 1.70±0.10 g, female, n=6). In addition, Funchicórea® (0.01-1000 μg/mL) elicited relaxation in rat ileum pre-contracted by KCl 40 mM (Emax=97.5±7.0 %, n=7) and carbachol (1 μM, Emax=100.0±7.0 %, n=7).

Conclusion: The results obtained demonstrated that the herbal medicine Funchicórea® acts by stimulating the intestine of rats and mice and has spasmolytic activity in isolated rat ileum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diuretic, Kaliuretic and Anti-Natriuretic Properties of Aqueous Extract of Celosia trigyna L. (Amaranthaceae) on Wistar Rats

Touwindséda Aimée Sawadogo, Youssoufou Ouedrogo, Lazare Belemnaba, Filkpièrè Léonard Da, Balé Bayala

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1930348

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the diuretic and electrolyte excretion properties of the aqueous extract of Celosia trigyna L. (Amaranthaceae) on female Wistar rats.

Methodology: The extraction of active principles was done by macerating aerial parts of the plant. The administration of the extract and other products was done by single-dose gavage. Measurements of urinary flow rate (UFR), natriuria, kaliuria and chloruria were taken on urine collected for twenty-four hours after each product was administered. Diuretic activity (DA) and diuretic index (DI), natriuretic and saluretic effects, and carbonic anhydrase inhibition were calculated. A NaCl solution (0.9%) was used as a negative control; furosemide and aldactone were respectively used as hypokalemic and hyperkalemic positive controls.

Results: We observed a significant increase in UFR, confirmed by the values of DA and DI, obtained after the administration of extract. For electrolyte excretion, we observed an increase of the kaliuria (p ˂ 0.001) and a decrease of natriuria (p ˂ 0.001) after the extract was administered; chloruria did not significantly changed. We also found a drastic anti-natriuretic dose-dependent effect while saluretic activity and carbonic anhydrase inhibition were not clearly observable.

Conclusion: These results confirm the ethnobotanical data about diuretic effect of Celosia trigyna L. extract. This diuretic effect would be supported by a specific increase in K+ excretion suggesting that the extract is possibly hypokalemic. The anti-natriuretic effect suggests that extract possess an aldosterone-like properties.

Open Access Review Article

Study of the Acute Toxicity and Antipyretic Activity of the Aqueous Extract of the Bark Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill (Caesalpiniaceae: Leguminosae -Caesalpinioideae)

K. J. Kouadio, F. S. Ouattara-Soro, W. M. O. Tovi, K. B. Yao, M. GboGbo, T. B. L. Aboli, G. Abizi, K. E. Begbin, A. Kone

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1930349

Aims: Distemonanthus benthamianus is a widespread plant in West Africa. The bark of its stem is used popularly to treat a variety of illnesses, including fever, bronchitis, rheumatism and malaria. The objective of this work is to evaluate the antipyretic activity of the aqueous extract of the bark of Distemonanthus benthamianus.

Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of the bark of D. benthamianus was tested for their acute oral toxicity in rats. Antipyretic activity was studied in rats of the Wistar strain made feverish after subcutaneous injection of an aqueous suspension of brewer's yeast (Saccharomycete cerevisiae) 20% compared to aspirin.

Results: This study showed that administration of the extract at doses of 300, 2000 and 5000 mg / kg / kg dry extract in rats showed no acute toxicity or adverse effects. The results showed that the best antipyretic activity of the extract was recorded at a dose of 800 mg / kg, at the third hour, with a decrease in fever from 39.29 ± 0.14°C to 37.75 ± 0.25°C, i.e. a percentage inhibition of 57% against 62% for the standard molecule (p> 0.05). At this dose, CRP was 3.85 ± 0.1 mg / L compared to that of the healthy control which was 2.78 ± 0.35 mg / L. The results of the albumin assay did not show a significant difference between the treated and untreated fever groups and the healthy control group. In addition, the results showed that the leukocyte level in the feverish control rats is very high (18.84 103 / mm3 of leukocytes) compared to the healthy and treated control rats.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of the bark of Distemonanthus benthamianus is not oral toxic and has interesting antipyretic activities similar to aspirin. The results obtained confirm the validity of the traditional indication of this plant in the management of fever by African populations.