Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antidiabetic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Eng, Rhizophora racemosa G. Mey and Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn

A. K. Camara, E. S. Baldé, M. Haidara, A. Camara, K. Guilavogui, R. Sanogo, A. M. Baldé

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830339

Aims: Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Eng (Araceae), Rhizophora racemosa G. Mey (Rhizophoraceae) and Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn (Strelitziaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Guinea for diabetes management. The aim of this work was to test the antidiabetic activity of these plants and to determine their toxicity.

Material and Methods: Extemporaneous extracts based on these plants were tested for their acute toxicity, their effects in normoglycemic rats and rendered hyper glycemic by the oral route in comparison with the glibenclamide an antidiabetic agent. Swiss albino mice and Male Wistar rats were used respectively for acute oral toxicity and antidiabetic activity.

Results: This study showed that the administration of the 2000 mg / kg dose of dry extracts in mice showed no acute toxicity and adverse effect. At a dose of 400 mg/kg these three plants showed significant hypoglycaemia effect. The average blood glucose levels ranged from 111.2 ± 6.2 to 84.6 ± 6.7 mg/dL (p<0.001) for A. difformis, 110.6 ± 6 to 93.2 mg/dL (p<0.05) for R. racemosa and 99.6 ± 14.4 to 82.3 mg/dL (p<0.05) for R. madagascariensis.

Conclusion: The results obtained on the antidiabetic properties of these three plants corroborates their traditional uses in the management of type 2 diabetes in the Republic of Guinea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Henna Leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

L. C. Chuku, N. C. Chinaka, Dada Damilola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830340

In traditional West African setting, plants are commonly used for cosmetic and medicinal benefits such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiparasitic effect of which Henna (Lawsonia inermis), a natural occurring plant of the lythraceae family is not an exception. A preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory properties of Lawsonia inermis leaves extracted with N-butanol and ethyl acetate was investigated. Standard analytical procedures were observed, and statistical analysis using ANOVA version 20.0 was conducted to analyze for mean ± standard deviation (SD) and the least significant difference (LSD) obtained from the study. Results revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides; while In vivo anti-inflammatory activity wasobserved on a week old cockerel chicks induced carrageenan inflammation post extract administration, using aspirin tablet as control. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract as portrayed could be attributed to the plants rich phytochemical potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crude and Partition Extracts of Newbouldia laevis Leaves Attenuate Excitotoxin-induced Stereotypy in Mice

Oyetunji Timothy Kolawole, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega Adeyeba, Olufunsho Awodele, Olayemi Kamoru Wakeel, Akeem Ademola Ayankunle

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830341

Aims: This study was designed to investigate the effects of crude ethanol and partition extracts of Newbouldia laevis leaves on excitotoxin-induced stereotypy in mice.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Laboratory of the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, between July and October, 2020.

Methodology: Following pretreatment of mice with graded doses (150 - 600 mg/kg b.w) of crude extract (NLE) and partition fractions [n-butanol partition fraction (BPE), n-hexane partition fraction (HPE) and ethylacetate partition fraction (EAPE)] of Newbouldia laevis leaves, stereotypy was induced by the administration of methamphetamine (35 mg/kg b.w) and apomorphine (5mg/kg b.w.), and stereotypy scores were recorded thereafter. The effects of BPE and NLE on catalepsy were also determined. Statistical significance was taken at P<0.05

Results: In both apomorphine and methamphetamine models, stereotyped behavior was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the treated mice compared to the control. The degree of protection offered by Newbouldia laevis extracts against excitotoxin-induced stereotypy was in the order: BPE>NLE>EAPE>HPE. In the catalepsy test, BPE (600 mg/kg b.w) significantly potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy compared to control (P<0.05). Likewise, NLE significantly increased catalepsy compared to control (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate that crude and partition extracts of Newbouldia laevis leaves attenuated stereotypy in methamphetamine and apomorphine models, and thus could be effective remedy for schizophrenia-like psychosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Underlying Mechanisms of Anti-spasmodic, Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Acute Toxicity Assessments of Aqueous Extract of Mentha Suaveolens Ehrh and its Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy Analysis

EL-Akhal Jamila, Chda Alae, Tazi Abdelali, Boukir Abdelatif, Bencheikh Rachid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 37-54
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830342

Objective: The aim of this present study is to investigate the antidiarrheal, spasmolytic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh (AEMS), to study their underlying mechanisms in animal models and to reveal its main functional groups using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR).

Methods: Mentha suaveolens Ehrh was studied for antidiarrheal activity on Wistar rats of both sexes at the doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg body weight using castor oil-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced enteropooling and small intestinal transit models.

The extract was studied for antispasmodic property in isolated rabbit jejunum using various spasmogenic agents including Ach (10-5M), KCl (100 mM) and in the absence and in the presence of L-NAME (10-4 M) and the methylene blue (10-5 M).The antioxidant capacity of AEMS was carried out using DPPH radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). Ascorbic acid and Butylated HydroxyToluene (BHT) were used as references. The functional chemical groups were determined by FTIR.

Results: The great antidiarrheal potential of AEMS seems to be mediated through calcium antagonism. The marked and concentration-dependent induced spasmolytic effect of AEMS appears to involve Ca2+ voltage channel blockade and the NO/cGMP pathway activation. AEMS possessed strong and concentration-dependent antioxidant potency using DPPH and FRAP. Polyphenols, carboxyl and carbohydrates were found to be the main functional groups in the AEMS analyzed by FTIR.

Conclusion: Overall, our current findings provide scientific proves in animal models for the traditional use of AEMS in folk medicine for the prevention or the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in Morocco.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Ethnobotanical Study of Strychnos icaja Baillon (Loganiaceae) from Gabon

Reine Raïssa Rolande Aworet Samseny, Line-Edwige Mengome, Sophie Aboughe Angone

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 55-64
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830343

Aim: In plants, are found large amount of vitamin (A, B, C, E), mineral (Zn, Cu, Se) and biochemical (glutathione, taurine, phenol acids) substances which also have a well-known antioxidant power. These substances have phytotheraptic applications in the fight against aging caused by oxidative stress and are oxidative component of acute pathologies: (infectious, traumatic, inflammatory and allergic). Strychnos icaja Baillon (Loganiaceae) is a tropical shrub common in the tropical forest of Central Africa. Strychnos species is mainly used by the local population as an arrow or ordeal poison, for treatment of haemorrhoids and malaria by the Pygmies tribes from Cameroon due to its magic-medical property. This study determined the medicinal uses of Strychnos and assessed its antioxidant potential.

Methodology: Extracts of alkaloids, aqueous, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol from Strychnos were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. An ethnobotanical survey of 20 traditional therapists was carried to obtain the medicinal uses of the root of Strychnos icaja.

Results: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) test shows good antiradical activity. Antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test, show that Strychnos total alkaloids of the roots have a value of 5.94 ± 0.14mmol EAA/g that is significantly close from Ascorbic acid (5.86 ± 0.51 mmol EAA/g). The results of survey of traditional therapists identified six indications of this plant, namely in the treatment of haemorrhoids, against ear infections, male urethritis, rheumatic and dental pain and sterility in women.

Conclusion: The Strychnos icaja possesses antioxidant activity, this can find use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Antimicrobial Activity from Species Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng, a Review

Juliane Maria dos Santos Silva, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Cristiane dos Santos Cerqueira Alves, Daniel Amando Nery, Livia Maria Oliveira Damasceno, Camila de Souza Araújo, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ana Paula de Oliveira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1830337

Introduction: Nowadays, several bacteria have acquired resistance to available antimicrobial agents making necessary the search for new therapeutic alternatives. Plectranthus amboinicus L. is a succulent and aromatic herb, popularly known as thick leaf mint, used in popular medicine for the treatment of colds, digestive diseases, asthma, headache and to fight pathogenic bacteria activity. In view the antimicrobial activity of P. amboinicus this study had as aim to review publications involving researches about antimicrobial activity of this species.

Materials and Methods: For this, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Scielo databases were consulted in November 2020 using the keywords Plectranthus amboinicus and antimicrobial activity. In vitro and/or in vivo studies on the antimicrobial activity of the species in the last 10 years were considered.

Results: The main microorganisms evaluated were: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and some Candida species. The essential oils had carvacrol, germacrene D, thymol and camphor as main constituents. Most studies evaluated the antimicrobial activity using broth dilution and agar diffusion methods. In most studies essential oil, extracts and/or isolated substances showed significant antimicrobial activity. Synergistic activity was also observed through association with antibiotics.

Conclusion: P. amboinicus has therapeutic potential for antimicrobial treatments and can be an alternative to the treatment of resistant microorganisms and that further in vivo and clinical studies with the species are still needed.