Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Herbal Medicine Use on Adherence to Conventional Anticancer Drugs

Christine Karungi, Philip Asiimwe, Conrad Ssentongo, Sharon Primah Tuhaise, Joseph Oloro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730331

Background: Use of herbal medicines alongside conventional anticancer drugs is common among cancer patients. This may potentially cause reduced adherence to conventional anti-cancer drugs, unpredictable side effects and unknown drug-herb interactions. This in the long run could result in poor clinical outcomes.

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how use of herbal medicines affects adherence to conventional anti-cancer drugs, to determine the proportion of patients using both conventional and herbal anticancer medicines and to identify the common herbal medicines used alongside conventional anti-cancer drugs by patients at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital Oncology unit.

Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the oncology clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital found in Mbarara district, Uganda. Data was collected between 20th March and 20th April 2019 from 122 participants who met the inclusion criteria with subsequent consenting. Our primary outcome was adherence and secondary outcome was to investigate whether cancer patients use herbal medicines alongside conventional anti-cancer drugs.

Our study had 122 patients most of them belonging to the Banyankole tribe, 75 (61.5%) being males. Of the 72 (59.02%) patients who used herbal medicine, 40 (55.56%) were males and 66.67% of the herbal users reported relief from herbal medicines. Aloe Vera was the most commonly used herb. Most of the patients 77 (63.1%) showed high adherence, this was greater in the non-herbal users than in the herbal users (COR=1.62) though this was not significant (p=0.399).

Conclusion: It is most likely that majority of cancer patients use at least one herb during their course of life. The results did not show a significant relationship between herbal medicine use and adherence to conventional anti-cancer drugs. The high proportion of herbal medicine users calls for more research into the area to provide further information that can help optimize cancer treatment outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutritional and Mineral Content of Dehydrated Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Mukta Akter, Nazia Bithi, Masum Billah, Sadat Mustak, Mamun Rashid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730332

This study was executed to produce dehydrated ginger powder using four different drying methods viz. sun, oven, mechanical and microwave along with their nutritional, mineral content and sensory quality evaluation. Microwave dried powder contained highest moisture content (7.10±0.04%) and was significantly different to other drying methods. Protein, fat, ash and crude fiber contents ranged from (6.10 ± 0.05 to 6.78 ± 0.07%), (1.01 ± 0.16 to 1.42 ± 0.25%), (3.21 ± 0.12 to 4.07 ± 0.10%) and (3.76 ± 0.13 to 4.88 ± 0.12%) respectively. K and Ca contents ranged from (20.45 ± 0.06 to 26.35 ± 0.07 mg/100 g) and (108.64 ± 0.09 to 188.62 ± 0.07 mg/100 g), respectively. Though some values were significantly different (P<0.05) under different drying conditions, the analyzed results showed that the produced ginger powder retained a good nutritional profile, minerals and sensory quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Antioxidant Supplementation on High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Albino Rats

L. C. Chuku, N. C. Chinaka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730333

The influenceof antioxidant supplementation on high fat diet-streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in Wistar albino rats was investigated. Appropriate (RDA) proportions of some antioxidant rich substances which includes; vitamins (A, B3, B6, B12, C and E), minerals (calcium, selenium, chromium, magnesium, potassium and zinc), α-lipoic acid, cinnamon powder, curcumin (Meriva®), cordyceps, resveratrol, quercetin, D-ribose-L-cysteine were pulled together in corn oil and stored at 4°C for use. Serum glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured using standard methods. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 and significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results of in vitro oxidative stress indices and antioxidant enzyme activity indicate that after 4 weeks of treatment, there was no significant change (p≥0.05) in serum FBS levels of treated groups compared to the normal control group, but there was a significant decrease (p≤0.05) after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment when compared to the diabetic control group. There was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the activities of antioxidant enzymes when compared to the normal control group, while in the diabetic control there was significant increase (p≤0.05) compared to the other groups. The results after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in serum GSH level of normal and treated groups compared to diabetic control group, whereas there was a significant decline (p≤0.05) in serum MDA level of treated and normal control groups when compared to diabetic control. The results therefore suggest that the supplement may possess significant (p≤0.05) free radical scavenging potentials which could be beneficial to health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aqueous Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Rhizomes Sold in Ouagadougou Markets: Phytochemical Constituents, Effect on Arterial Pressure and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats

Larba Colette Tougouma, Youssoufou Ouédraogo, Abel Andouormwine Somé, Lazare Belemnaba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730335

The aim of this study was to exhibit cardiovascular effects of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome sold in Ouagadougou markets (Burkina Faso). Phytochemical constituents and some blood biochemical parameters were also investigated. Colorimetric method was used for phytochemical screening. Extract was prepared and orally administered on Wistar rats. Arterial pressure and cardiac rhythm were measured using Ugo Basile Blood Pressure Recorder 58500. Biochemical parameters were performed using Mindray BA-88A, Semi-auto Chemistry Analyzer. Triterpenes and/or sterols, and saponosides were present in aqueous extract of the plant. We also found very significative hypotension effect on rat mean arterial pressure, when plant extract was administered at 400 mg/kg bw (p ˂ 0.01). When extract was administered after a hypertension induced by L-NAME, we observed a high significative antihypertensive effect (p ˂ 0.001) at 200 and 400 mg/kg bw. This effect was comparable to captopril inhibition of L-NAME induced hypertension. However, in all cases, we did not observe any significative variation of heart rate. For biochemical parameters, we did not find any effect, excepted a significant increase of phosphoremia at 400 mg/kg bw and after L-NAME administration (highly significant). Our results confirm literature data and corroborate traditional uses of Z. officinale sold in Ouagadougou markets. They suggest that antihypertensive effect of AEZO is mainly supported by vascular physiology components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spermicidal and Antibacterial Effects of Oncoba welwitschii Oliv. (Salicaceae)

Odette N. Kabena, Naomie E. Nyakembe, Jean Jacques D. Amogu, Lionel S. Asamboa, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Justin E. Mboloko, Pius T. Mpiana, Félicien L. Lukoki

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730336

Aim: The aim of this work is to evaluate the spermicidal, antimicrobial activity of Oncoba welwitchii Oliv. This will justify its use on reproductive health especially in the occurrence of infertility and the imbalance of vaginal flora. Carried out at the Department of Biology of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Kinshasa, between January and May 2019, this study was initiated to determine the effect of the use of O. welwitchii Oliv. on human spermatozoa and vaginal microorganisms.

Methodology: The leaves of O. welwitchii Oliv. were collected and identified at University of Kinshasa. The spermicidal effect was performed by the Sander-Cramer method and antibacterial activity were evaluated by liquid dilution method.

Results: The results revealed that the juice of the leaves of O. welwitchii Oliv. have a spermicidal effect, as this juice reduce the initial mobility of the spermatozoids after 60 minutes of the exposure from 72±12% to 1±2% and their initial viability from 74±11% to 10±18%. This juice has shown bacteriostatic effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (MBC/MIC > 4) and bactericidal effects against Lactobacilus acidophilus (MBC/MIC ≤ 4).

Conclusion: This study gives additional information on the phytochemistry composition and a spermicidal effects of O. welwitchii Oliv. The spermicidal effects of this plant could be associated to its acidity.

It should be noted that to the best of our knowledge, no study on the phytochemistry of O. welwitchii Oliv. is available in the literature.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Ethnomedicinal Claims of Erythroxylum moonii Hochr

P. A. N. G. Perera, Acharya Rabinarayan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1730334

Introduction: Since ancient times, plants contributed in the treatment of multiple disease conditions due to their immense therapeutic claims and currently serve as the principal origin of various medicinal preparations. The aim of present study is to agglomerate all available ethnomedicinal information and research updates pertaining to Erythroxylum moonii Hochr. that is used by traditional health practitioners.

Materials and Methods: Reported ethnomedicinal uses of E. moonii were reviewed with the use of books and research articles with especial relevance to ethnobotany and ethnomedicine from December 2019 to September 2020. Information was categorized as per vernacular names, locality, used parts, therapeutic claims, type and mode of administration along with the ingredients and dosage forms of the preparations.

Results: Erythroxylum moonii is reported in 3 countries and 2 states of India for its presence and it is observed that the plant has been utilized for therapeutic purpose as food preparations and medicinal preparations only in Sri Lanka. Its leaves (majorly) and stem bark are used in 5 different disease conditions either internally or externally. Maximum number of claims are indicated in the management of worm infestation. Among them, the leaves have the maximum application on 4 disease conditions followed by stem bark which has only one. Resent research activities have revealed the presence of anti-fungal and anti-nematodal activities of E. moonii.

Conclusion: Conducting provable scientific studies (pharmacological and clinical) is needed for E. moonii to establish its multiple ethnomedicinal claims.