Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Mathematical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Seed Extract of Hunteria Umbellata

Oluwaseun Raphael Aderele, Adekunle Kareem Rasaq, Johnson Oshiobugie Momoh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630325

Aim: The study evaluates the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Hunteria umbellata against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for three months in 2019 in Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences (Biochemistry unit), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos- Nigeria.

Methodology: The qualitative and GC-MS analysis of Hunteria umbellata methanolic seed extract were determined using standard procedure. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. The experimental data was resampled 1000 times to allow for higher degrees of freedom in carrying out t-test to test for the difference of the effect of in-vitro antimicrobial activity of H. umbellata against E. coli, S. aureus and Streptococcus sp using mathematical software R language (3.6.1 version). Line plots, histogram and t-test are used to explain the effect of antimicrobial activity of H. umbellate on the selected bacteria. MIC and MBC were determined using standard methods.

Results: The Phytochemical analysis of methanolic seed extract of Hunteria umbellata showed the presence of secondary metabolites like saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenol among others. GC-MS assay of the H. umbellata seed extract revealed the presence of eight different compounds. Agar well diffusion method was characterized by inhibition zones of 18.36±0.87, 19.13±1.03 and 21.62±2.53 mm for E.coli, S. aureus and Streptococcus sp respectively at 300 mg/ml-1 and 21.70± 1.60, 23.83± 2.64 and 28.57± 1.52 for E.coli, S. aureus and Streptococcus sp respectively at 500 mg/ml. The results of the analysis show that there is a significant difference between the effects of in-vitro antimicrobial activity of H. umbellate on 3001 and 500 mg/ml on each bacteria tested at 5% level of significance. E.coli, S. aureus and Streptococcus sp were tested against 12 standard antimicrobial agents, of which six was sensitive and another six was resistance to E .coli, seven was sensitive, and five was resistance to S. aureus while four was resistance and eight sensitive to Streptococcus sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E.coli, S. aureus, and  Streptococcus sp were 250, 125 and 31.25 mgml-1 while their minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 500, 250 and 125 respectively. MIC and MBC tests showed that H. umbellata methanolic seed extract had noticeable bactericidal effects with MBC/MIC values ranging between 2 to 4. The extract has strong potency against these microorganisms with Streptococcus sp being the most susceptible.

Conclusions: Hunteria umbellata has potential as natural therapeutic agents against E. coli, S. aureus and Streptococcus sp and they may prevent pathogenic diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Rays Induced Oil and Fatty Acid Alteration in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds

Girjesh Kumar, Mohini Bhardwaj

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 18-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630326

Aim: To evaluate the effects of radiation on oil and fatty acid content of cumin by irradiating seeds with varied doses of gamma rays viz.,100 Gy, 125 Gy, 150 Gy, 175 Gy.

Study Design: Oil and fatty acid content was estimated by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy.

Results: The result reveals that oil and fatty acid quantity were significantly changed upon radiation. Oil amount was increased in irradiated seeds whereas fatty acid content was decreased except petroselinic acid and linoleic acid which was increased in comparison to control. In contrast to non irradiated seeds, the lowest dose of gamma found beneficial as oil content and majority of fatty acids were increased.

Conclusion: Therefore, irradiation of cumin seeds for protection and preservation purpose could significantly affect the fatty acid content of cumin as seeds are prone to fungal infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in Traditional Treatment of Diarrhoea in Humans and Cattle in Two Regions of Ivory Coast

Karim Tuo, Gbouhoury Eric-Kévin Bolou, Assi Fiacre-Tanguy N’docho, Aurélie Chevillot, Mohamed Mammeri, Isabelle Vallee, Karim Adjou, Offianan André Toure, Bruno Polack, Ronan Jambou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630327

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in three regions of the country (two rural and one urban), using a questionnaire focussing on anti-diarrheal therapeutic habits.

Methodology: Information about the plants has been recorded (local name, organs or part(s) of the plant used, therapeutic indications, harvesting methods, methods of administration, side   effects, etc.). Collection of the plants was done in collaboration with traditional                  practitioners and identification of the specimens was conducted at the National Floristic Center (Ivory coast).

During the ethnobotanical survey, twelve traditional healers and nine breeders were interviewed which all declared to treat diarrhoea with plants. During this survey, twenty-seven species belonging to eighteen different families of plants were reported for anti-diarrhoeal use in humans or animals. They were all harvested on the field and a herbarium of each species was prepared in duplicate, one stored at the National Floristic Centre of the Felix Houphouët-Boigny University and the other at the Pasteur Institute of Ivory coast.

Results: Decoction was the most common mode of preparation used by practionioners and the oral route remained also the main way of administration of plants by healers. These plants are also used in other countries for the same or other purpose.

Conclusion: This study shows that traditional medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of diarrhoea in Ivory coast. It provides basis for future studies to assess, biological and chemical potential of these plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Two Chlorophyceae and Two Rhodophyceae Seaweeds from Porbandar Coast

Abhishek Dhanki, Smit Sindhav, B. A. Jadeja

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630328

Seaweeds are significant marine sources of bioactive compounds with prospective use inefficient foods and nutraceutical products. Four marine macroalgae species from the western coasts of Gujarat were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of red seaweed Hypnea valentiae and Spyridia filamentosa and green seaweed Enteromorpha compressa and Caulerpa racemosa using cold percolation extraction in an in-vitro method and testing against six pathogenic bacteria and one fungi. Results showed effective inhibition zone. The antioxidant activity of the seaweeds methanol extracts was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay for measuring potential scavenger of free radical. Both activities were shown promising result of all four seaweeds. This study suggested that seaweeds could have shown a potential role in the future remedy and nutrition which can be used as drug or food additive.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anticoagulant Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera) on Human Normal Blood Sample

Somia Attaelseed Hassan, Zeinab Sayed Abdelaziz, Mohammed Mobarak Elbasheir, Wala Eldin Osma Elradi, Elharam Ibrahim Abd Allah, Aadil Yousif Elmahi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630329

Background: Scientists have used herbs nowadays for curing many diseases because they are safer and to overcome the side effect of the chemical drugs. Grape is one of the ancient herbs that used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, skin care and many other conditions. Grape seeds have significantly higher concentrations of polyphenols which has anticoagulant and antithrombotic effect.

Materials and Methods: In this study 20 normal blood samples from healthy individuals with age range (19-38) years were enrolled in this study]. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests were performed before adding grape seed extraction (GSE) (as control) and after adding GSE with different concentrations (25%, 50% and 75%).

Results: The results revealed that grape seed extract has an anticoagulant effect as proven by the increase of Prothrombin time and Activated partial thromboplastin time results of the blood samples in different concentrations of the extract. The GSE showed a high statistical significant (P= 0.000) in all concentrations of both PT and APTT tests.

Conclusion: This study suggests that GSE has a strong anticoagulant effect; so it can potentially be used as a supplementary anticoagulant agent to prevent thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viability and Vigor of Bacaba Seed (Oenocarpus bacaba) in Different Substrates

Daniella Inácio Barros, Helber Veras Nunes, Camila Torres da Silva, Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes, Rodrigo Silva de Oliveira, Laysla Soares de Souza Lima, Calebe Oliveira Crispim da Silva, Ariadyla Fernanda Paixão dos Reis, Lorrany Fernandes Carvalho, Mayck Alexsander Lima Cavalcante, David Martins de Sena, Felix Antônio Coelho de Andrade

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1630330

The Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) belongs to the Arecaceae family, is a palm tree native to the Amazon, in which it is distributed throughout the Amazon basin, mainly in the regions of Pará, Tocantins, Acre, and in southern Maranhão, having as habitat the high virgin forest. The production of quality seedlings depends on several factors, and the composition of substrates is a major factor, because seed germination, root initiation, and rooting are directly linked to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the substrate. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Education - IFTO, Sciences, and Technology of Tocantins, in the city of Gurupi - TO, between September 5, 2018, and December 30, 2018. For the realization of the same, Bacaba seeds (Oenocarpus bacaba) were used, which were purchased at the street fair in the municipality of Gurupi - TO. Root and shoot length, number of leaves, root and shoot dry mass, first emergency count and seedling emergence were evaluated. The substrates: Washed Sand, Commercial Substrate, Pinus Bark + Sawdust Powder + Commercial Substrate, and Worm Humus + Coconut Shell + Commercial Substrate + Sawdust Powder provided the highest values of viability and vigor in Bacaba seeds.