Open Access Case study

A Case Report of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 with Adjuvant Use of Bauhinia forficata in Pharmacological Treatment

Igor Domingos de Souza, Eliza Miranda Ramos, Francisco José Mendes dos Reis, Hugo Miguel Ramos Vieira, Iara Barbosa Ramos, Pamella Aline Miranda Teodoro, Ana Carla Gomes Rosa, Antonio Carlos de Abreu, Janete Pereira Lima, Gilberto Gonçalves Facco, Valter Aragão do Nascimento

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530324

Introduction: Bauhinia forficata, has presented in several interesting effects for the diabetic human organism as the adjuvant treatment. Its effects have been tested and proven in scientific studies in the Unified Health System in Brazil.

Aims: Verify the effects of the medicinal plant Bauhinia forficata as an aid in the control of glycemic indexes.

Methodology: Case report with exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach, using direct observation techniques of the Dáder method adapted to the use of herbal medicines such as Bauhinia forficata

Results: In this study, there was a decrease in triglyceride levels with a drop of 77%, which despite not reaching the recommended values ​​for diabetic patients (<150 mg/dl) is quite significant. Conclusion: Bauhinia forficata used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus has anti-inflammatory actions that contribute to reduce glycated hemoglobin and, thus decrease fasting and postprandial glucose.

Open Access Short Research Article

Chemical Composition of Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae)

Mariana de O. N. Costa, Kamylla T. Santos, Clarice A. Almeida, Francine S. A. da Fonseca, Célio F. F. Angolini, Dario A. de Oliveira, Afrânio F. de Melo Júnior, Elytania V. Menezes, Vanessa de A. Royo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 43-48
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530323

In view of the therapeutic potential and popular use of the Malpighiaceae family, with emphasis on the importance of species of the Diplopterys (Banisteriopsis) genus, the objective of this study was to identify the metabolites classes of leaves and stems of Diplopterys pubipetala. The extracts were analyzed and detected 10 compounds distributed among alkaloids (2), flavonoids (3), terpenes (3), saponin (1) and lactone (1). Among the substances found, there are compounds already reported in the Malpighiaceae family. The therapeutic potentials cited in the literature for the identified substances were: antifungal, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor actions. This work is a pioneer in the study of the chemical constituents present in D. pubipetala and opens new lines of research for this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tiger Nut Meal on PSA, Relative Organ Weight Sperm Cell and Histological Changes in Androgen-induced Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Adult Male Wistar Rats

D. I. Izunwanne, J. N. Egwurugwu, C. L. Emegano

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530319

Introduction: It is generally believed that Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) has some fertility boosting effects. However, scientific validation of some the fertility boosting belief concerning tiger nut is lacking.

Objective: The aim of this project was to study the effects of tiger nuts on PSA, Sperm midpiece, relative organ weight and histological changes in BPH induced rats.

Method: A total of sixty (60) male rats weighing between 160 – 200 g were used in this study. They were divided into six groups of ten rats per group. Benign prostate hyperplasia was induced in three groups of the rats (as stated in methodology) with 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous injections of hormones containing dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate dissolved in olive oil in the ratio of 10:1 (three times in a week, one day interval). Administration of tiger nut meal commenced immediately and lasted for two months. At the end of administration, blood sample was collected from the rat via cardiac puncture for the determination of PSA. Semen sample was also collected for semen morphological studies. Internal organs notably, the prostate and the testes of the rats were also removed for histological examination.

Results: The study showed that the induction of BPH brought about some adverse effects. On PSA, the administration of the tiger nut meal ameliorated the BPH by significantly reducing the increased level of the PSA which is a biomarker for prostate hyperplasia (P<0.05). The effect of the tiger nut on sperm morphological toxicities were also examined. Sperm abnormalities like those with bent midpiece was examined. The result showed that the administration of tiger nut meal significantly ameliorated the abnormality and thus, restored the morphology of the sperm cells such that it can enhance fertility. A significant difference was also seen in the relative weight of the prostate. The enlarged prostate in the induced + treated group was later observed through histological studies to have reduced significantly following the administration of the tiger nut.

Conclusion: Tiger nut meal ameliorates BPH by reducing the PSA and enlarged prostate. It also ameliorates semen toxicities in the BPH induced + treated rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antimicrobial Activities and Toxicological Effects of Green and Red Cultivars of Roselle- Hibiscus sabdariffa L

Serifat Olatundun Salami, Anthony Jide Afolayan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530320

Aims: The use of synthetic antibiotics has been the major way of curing diseases; however, over-use of antibiotics has led to emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of several groups of microorganisms. This study aimed at examining roselle extracts for antimicrobial properties with a view to providing the best alternative to the injudicious use of synthetic antibiotics and also examines the toxicological effects of roselle extracts.

Methodology: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roselle leaves and calyces were evaluated for antimicrobial activity based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using Broth dilution method. The toxicological effects based on LC50 were also evaluated using Brine shrimp- Artemia salina. Simple percentage was used to determine the mortality rate of the nauplii while the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts were determined using MINITAB 17 statistical package (P<0.05). Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of three replicates.

Results: Roselle calyces, pre-flowering green and flowering red exhibited excellent inhibition to bacteria. Calyces had better antimicrobial activities and higher toxicological effects than the leaves. Green roselle at pre-flowering stage and red flowering were good for antimicrobial screening.

Conclusion: Roselle extracts possessed excellent antibacterial and antifungal properties. These can be explored to develop new drugs, which can suppress the resistant strains. All the plant extracts were greater than 1000 mg/mL, which indicates that they were non-toxic to brine shrimp larvae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Effect of Arrabidaea chica Polyphenolic Extract Used as Dentin Pre-treatment against Cariogenic Microbiota

Lidiane Thaís Volkmann, Enrico Coser Bridi, Rosanna Tarkany Basting, Ilza Maria de Oliveira Sousa, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral, Cecilia Pedroso Turssi, Mary Ann Foglio, Roberta Tarkany Basting

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530321

Aims: This study tested the antimicrobial effect of Arrabidaea chica (Ac) polyphenolic extract in different concentrations incorporated into an aqueous solution or into a primer of an adhesive system used for cavities pre-treatment against Streptococcus mutans (Sm) and Lactobacillus casei (Lc).

Study Design: In vitro experimental study design to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different solutions containing Ac against Sm and Lc.

Methodology: Aqueous solution and primer (from a self-etching adhesive system - Clearfil SE Bond/Kuraray) were prepared containing Ac extract in six different concentrations: 0.0% (null); 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 1.5%; 2.0%; 2.5%. To determine the MIC, tubes with the inoculates of Sm and Lc were added with the solutions described above. Serial dilutions were inoculated in plates with culture medium (n=3). The colony forming unit count (CFU/mL) was carried out after 48 hours. Negative controls (aqueous or primer solutions without Ac incorporation) were used in both tests.

Results: Regression model showed that all Ac concentrations inhibited Sm growth (p>0.05) in aqueous solution. Negligible or no Sm growth was observed in the presence of primer in Ac concentrations above 0.25% (p<0.05). Negligible or no Lc growth was found in aqueous solution for all Ac concentrations, and in the presence of primer in Ac concentrations above 1% (p>0.05). All concentrations of Ac tested here maintained the acidic characteristics of the solutions.

Conclusion: Arrabidaea chica extract into an aqueous solution shows antimicrobial effect against Sm and Lc in all concentrations tested. When incorporated into the primer, the antimicrobial activity is observed in concentrations above 1%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Promotes Antioxidant, Survival, Fecundity, and Locomotor Activities in Drosophila melanogaster

Walter Mdekera Iorjiim, Simeon Omale, Great David Bagu, Steven Samuel Gyang, Emmanuel Taiwo Alemika

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1530322

Aim: The study was designed to investigate antioxidant, survivability,  fecundity, and locomotor activity of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) extract in Drosophila melanogaster.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Africa Centre of Excellence in phytomedicine Research and Development (ACEPRD), University of Jos, Nigeria, in August 2019 - March 2020. In the first place, in vitro analysis of the antioxidant activity of extracts of M. oleifera in various solvents (Aqueous, Methanol-Aqueous co-solvent (80 % v/v) and n-Hexane) were evaluated using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) assay. Based on the in vitro result, the methanol extract with the best free radical scavenging activity was used in graded doses for conducting the in vivo studies, and the observations were recorded. Distilled water (1000 µL) was used alone in 10 g fly food (as negative control) or as a solvent to dissolve MOL extract or ascorbic acid (positive control) separately before mixing with the fly food.  Statistical significance was taken at P<0.05

Results: The methanol extract of M. oleifera leaf (MEMOL) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher free radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 60 µg/ml) compared with the aqueous (IC50 = 100 µg/ml) and n-hexane (IC50 = 250 µg/ml) extracts respectively. The median lethal dose (LD50) of MEMOL was >2000 mg. Supplementation with MEMOL non-significantly (P>0.05) improved movement, significantly (P<0.05) increased survivability, fecundity, and total thiol level. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) significantly (P<0.05) increased. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity non-significantly (P>0.05) decreased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls, respectively.

Conclusion:  In vitro study suggested better antioxidant activity of MEMOL. In vivo study also revealed that MEMOL was relatively safe in D. melanogaster, supported by high LD50, increased survivability, fecundity, locomotor ability, antioxidant enzyme activities, total thiol level, along with a concomitant decrease in MDA content.