Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Characterization and In vitro Effects of Extracts Produced from Different Maytenus ilicifolia Matrices on the Activity of Intestinal Disaccharidases

Monica S. Z. Schindler, Carine Frozza, Gabriela Anzollin, Jean F. F. Calisto, André L. Radünz, Márcio P. Mariot, Jacir Dal Magro, Leila Zanatta

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 32-44
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430315

Introduction: Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reiss, Celastraceae, popularly known as “espinheira-santa” is traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and diabetes. However, studies proving efficacy for the treatment of diabetes are scarce. Furthermore, it is believed that the presence of chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological activity may be affected by environmental variations. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the occurrence of variations in chemical composition, total polyphenol content, total tannin, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity in vitro for different matrices of M. ilicifolia.

Methodology: Chemical characterization was determined by CG-MS. Total polyphenol and total tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometer readings using standard gallic acid and tannic acid curves, respectively. In vitro antioxidant potential was determined by reducing the DPPH radical. In vitro antidiabetic activity was determined by inhibiting intestinal disaccharidases (maltase, sucrase and lactase) from a commercial glucose measurement kit produced by incubating intestinal homogenates with their substrates.

Results and Discussion: The results indicated the presence of variations in the chemical constituents and their concentrations, the total polyphenol content, total tannins and the in vitro antioxidant activity among the different tested extracts of M. ilicifolia. It is believed that these variations may be responsible for the differences found in inhibition of disaccharidases for the three intestinal enzymes.

Conclusion: Extracts 116 and 122 showed the best results in disaccharidase inhibition, however further studies are needed to investigate the results and reproducibility in vivo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Monoaminergic Neurotransmission on the Antidepressant Effect of Leaf and Root Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the Locomotion and Immobility of Sprague-Dawley Rats

Iroghama I. Asoro, Osaretin A. T. Ebuehi, Mariam N. Igwo- Ezikpe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430316

Rauwolfia vomitoria is one of the medicinal plants which is used traditionally to manage hypertension, diabetes and mental disorder. The scientific evidence to suggest its medicinal use especially in mental health treatment is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of the leaf and root extracts of R. vomitoria in the rat model using neurobehavioural indices; open field test and forced swimming test. Subsequently, the effect of the extracts on monoamine neurotransmitters system was investigated. The neurobehavioral response of rats by open field test and forced swim test showed that there was a reduction in the explorative tendencies of the rats administered the aqueous and ethanol root extracts (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) compared to the control while forced swim test reduced the immobility time of rats across all treatment groups except 500 mg/kg group. Neurotransmitter levels (serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine) in plasma and brain of rats administered the different concentration of root extracts exhibited significant (p<0.05) increase. Thus, the mode of action may be due in part to the increase in monoamine levels or by suppression of the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters. This study established that R. vomitoria root extract has antidepressant-like effect in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of HIV and AIDS-Related Conditions in Makete District, Southern Highlands of Tanzania

Alphonce Ignace Marealle, Ester Innocent, Kerstin Andrae- Marobela, Michael Qwarse, Mainen Moshi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 56-83
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430317

Aims: Plants used in traditional medicine have contributed to the development of modern medicines, but in order to boost the discovery of novel drugs to fight diseases such as HIV/AIDS and emerging new diseases, systematic evaluation of many more plants needs to continue. The aim of the present study was to document medicinal plants used in the management of HIV and AIDS-related conditions in Makete District, Tanzania.

Study Design:  This was qualitative ethnopharmacological survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Makete District in Njombe Region, Tanzania between March and April 2019.

Methodology: This ethnopharmacological survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. The study focused only on traditional health practitioners (THP) registered by government health authorities in Makete District. The HIV and AIDS-related conditions considered in this study were tuberculosis, Herpes zoster, candidiasis, sexually transmitted infections, cough, skin rashes, frequent fevers, chronic diarrhea, chronic wounds, warts, oral thrush and weight loss. Literature survey was carried out to evaluate strength of the THP claims based on similar ethnopharmacological claims and proven pharmacological activities of the plants.

Results: Among the ten THP interviewed seven were male and three were female. The average age and years of practice were 57.5 and 26.5 years, respectively. Thirty-seven plant species representing 36 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for the treatment of different HIV and AIDS-related conditions. Twelve (32.4 %) and 15 (40.5 %) species did not have previously reported ethnopharmacological and pharmacological activities, respectively. Among the 37 plant species identified 13 species (35%) have been previously reported for similar ethnopharmacological uses and 12 (32%) species had literature reports on respective biological activities. Nine species have reported antiviral activity and seven of them displayed specific activities against HIV-1.

Conclusion: A significant number of medicinal plants identified in this study are reported here for the first time in relation to their use for HIV and AIDS-related conditions. The study also provides information that correlates well with previously published ethnopharmacological information or laboratory results of tests against HIV-1 or related conditions, thus justifying the need for screening and detailed studies intended to isolate and characterize compounds active against HIV and related conditions.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Herbal Remedies for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) from Melghat Region of Maharashtra State, India

Nitin M. Atre, Dinesh D. Khedkar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430313

Melghat means "meeting of ghats" region well known for "Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR)" located in the north-western compact block of Amravati district in Maharashtra state, India. This literature review aimed to compile and document the herbal remedies for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) as Gonorrhoea, anti-HIV Leucorrhoea, Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STDs), and Syphilis in Melghat region. A total of 167 medicinal plant species from Melghat distributed among 137 genera, and 66 families have complied for Gonorrhea (103), Syphilis (85), Leucorrhoea (84), anti-HIV (10), and STD (01). Plant families like Lythraceae (17 species), Malvaceae (11 species), Moraceae (8 species), Euphorbiaceae (8 species), Acanthaceae (6 species), Amaranthaceae (6 species), Verbenaceae (6 species), were most frequently occurred in the study. Trees represented 34.13% of species, followed by Herbs (32.33%), Shrubs (20.95%), Climbers (10.17%), Grasses (1.19%), Orchids (0.59%) and Aquatic (0.59%). Leaves were the most commonly used plant parts; it accounts 19% followed by roots (18%), whole plant (13%), bark (13%), seeds (7%), fruits (6%), stem (5%), flowers (5%), etc. Curated data presented as botanical names, families, local names, habitat, floristic area (in Melghat), ailments, part used with relevant ethnobotanical citations were documented and thus offers scope for researchers engaged in herbal drug discovery and development.

Open Access Review Article

Clean Technologies for Obtaining Biocomposites of Brazilian Ginseng Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen: A Review

Charlini Balastreri Dorta de Oliveira, Otávio Akira Sakai

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430314

The Brazilian ginseng Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen belongs to the Amaranthaceae family and has as its main component β-ecdysone, a phytoecdysteroid, found in the roots, stem, flowers and leaves of the plant. In the last years sustainability and the environment concern were decisive for the emerging supercritical fluid extraction and pressurized fluid extraction technologies to obtain biocomposites from the plant. These extraction technologies use solvents (CO2, ethanol and water) and uses as controllable parameters pressure, flow, time and temperature. The combination of these factors generates atoxicity, no residue in the final extract and have a reduced energy cost and an excellent extraction yield. This work reviews the literature from 2007 to 2020 on the use of clean technology to obtain chemical biocomposites of interest in the areas of biology, agronomy, food and pharmaceutics. It is was concluded that the supercritical fluid extraction and pressurized liquid extraction extracts were very efficient in obtaining β-ecdysone, since both presents low energy consumption, uses environmentally correct solvents which reduces harmful effects on the environment. Finally, to choose the best technology for extraction of other biocomposites depends on the chemical compound of interest.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Chiliadenus iphionoides (Syn. Varthemia iphionoides): A Review

Abeer R. Abdelhalim

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 84-97
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1430318

Chiliadenus iphionoides (Boiss. & Blanche) Brullo has been used in traditional medicine for different medical issues including stomach ailments, diabetes, male and female fertility problems, eye infection, kidney stones, and as an anti-inflammatory. Extracts of C. iphionoides have shown to exhibit useful pharmacological activities. Phytochemical studies have shown the existence of many biologically active compounds, such as essential oils, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. This review aims to collect the published research about the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological properties of C. iphionoides. This review showed that different extracts and active ingredients of C. iphionoides had various pharmacological properties such as anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, and antiplatelet activities which might be due to the excitant of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Chiliadenus iphionoides and its constituents exhibit many pharmacological properties that play a crucial role in human health, therefore, clinical trials should be conducted to study the valuable effects of the active ingredients of C. iphionoides in humans models and develop new drugs.