Open Access Case study

Management of Migraine with Ayurvedic Intervention - A Case Report

Kumari Archana, D. B. Vaghela

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330312

Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder with a multifaceted pathophysiology that displays as recurrent attacks of headache that are typically throbbing and unilateral/bilateral and often severe with concomitant symptoms such as photophobia, phonophobia stimuli. Similar disease condition with its cardinal feature is well describe as Shirah Shoola in Ayurveda caused by vitiated Tridosha. About 15% of the population suffers migraine. Prevalence of migraine is approximately 5.7% in men and 17.0% in women and accounts 2% years of life lost due to a disability in women of all ages. Modern science enforced several medications to manage migraine but fails to deroot it, additionally these drugs have adverse effects like GI upset, hypotension, lack of concentration etc. In contrast Ayurveda approach rather safe in use could be promising strategies that can pacify the characteristics of various Shirah Shoola as well as its associated disability. Laghu Sutasekhara Rasa orally and Brihat Dashmoola Taila Nasya is mentioned in Rasatantrasara and Siddhayogasangraha book with special indication to Shiarh Shoola. So an attempt has been made to assess the efficacy of these two drugs in the management of migraine in this single case study. Considerable improvement was seen in the clinical features of Migraine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Extract/Fractions of the Millettia aboensis (Leguminosae) Stem against Streptococcus mutans

Eze E. Ajaegbu, Flora N. Ezugworie, Adaobi J. Dieke, Ukachukwu C. Ezeh, Adeniran J. Ikuesan, Adaora L. Onuora, Florence O. Nduka, Ese S. Izekor, Aduloju A. Tunde, Nnyeneime U. Bassey, Jennifer N. Ewa-Elechi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330307

Aims: Millettia aboensis (Hook.f.) Baker belongs to the Leguminosae family, known locally as nduezi in Igbo, erurumesi in Edo, and Òdúdū in Efik. Millettia aboensis stem is a rich source of flavonoids, phenolic acid, alkaloids, and steroids, hence with medicinal and physiological potentials. It is used in traditional medicine for general healing of diseases including ulcers and laxatives. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial potential of the extract/fractions of the stem of M. aboensis against Streptococcus mutans – dental caries causative organism and detection of its principles.

Methodology: Cold maceration in methanol and liquid-liquid fractionation techniques using hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol as solvents were utilized for the extraction and fractionation processes respectively. Some phytochemicals from the fractions were suspected using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). The crude methanol stem extract/fractions were screened to analyze its antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans.

Results: The results showed for the fractions that aqueous fraction extract had the highest percentage yield (57.73%), followed by ethyl acetate (16.79%), butanol (12.17%), hexane (9.48%), while the percentage yield of the methanol extract is 2.98%. The HPLC-DAD analysis detected the following phytochemical constituents from the stem fractions: pestalotioprolide C - 1, corynesidone D - 2, enniatin B - 3, dipiperamide E - 4, isopranetin 8-C-glucoside - 5, genistein 8-C-glucoside - 6, genistein 6-C-glucoside - 7, and peniciaculin B - 8. In relatively low and high concentrations (6.25 – 50 mg/ml), the extract/fractions of M. aboensis were found ineffective against Streptococcus mutans.

Conclusion: The plant – M. aboensis with its phytochemicals present could be an excellent source of novel biologically active compounds with pharmaceutical and industrial importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Changes in Gastrointestinal Tissues of Wistar Rats Administered with Methanolic Leaf Extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae)

Dayo Rotimi Omotoso, Adeniran Oluwadamilare Akinola, Ibifuro Brown

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330308

To assess the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Caladium bicolor on the histomorphology of gastrointestinal tissues of experimental animals.

Twenty four Wistar rats (weighing between 175-190 g) were randomly and equally divided into four groups which include one control group (CG) and three treatment groups (TG I, TG II and TG III). The CG was administered with distilled water [2 ml/kg body weight (b.w.)] while TGs I, II and III were administered with 100 ml/kg, 200 ml/kg and 300 ml/kg (b.w.) of C. bicolor extract respectively. All administrations were done orally and once daily for a period of thirty days. The body weight of all animals was recorded at the beginning and end of study. After the period of study, gastric and small intestinal tissues of experimental animals were harvested, processed, converted to tissue blocks and sectioned. Tissue sections were stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) technique. Thereafter, stained sections microscopically examined for observable histopathological changes within study tissues.

The results of this study showed that exposure to C. bicolor extract causes significant (p < 0.05) body weight loss in TGs I-III compared to CG. In addition, prominent histopathological changes were observed in gastrointestinal tissues of experimental animals in TGs I-III including gastric mucosal surface erosion and intestinal villi degeneration compared to normal gastrointestinal histomorphology of CG animals.

These histopathological changes may be associated with toxic effect of phytochemicals constituents of the extract. Therefore, its application for therapeutic purposes needs to be thoroughly re-validated or perhaps disallowed where alternative therapeutic agents with minimal toxic potential exist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional Knowledge of Forest Medicinal Plants of Munduruku Indigenous People - Ipaupixuna

Patricia Chaves de Oliveira, Beatriz Costa de Oliveira Queiroz de Sou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 20-35
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330309

Aims: The traditional knowledge about the use of typical flora of forests such as the Amazon rainforest, is undoubtedly an intangible richness of indigenous populations. Recording this knowledge to value it is essential in the construction of contemporary history, especially in the present times of invasion of the Indigenous Territories. Thus, the objective of this research was to elucidate from ethnobotanical diagnoses the useful flora of Munduruku indigenous families, as a renewable and exploitable natural resource. The working hypothesis was to confirm the dependency of these local communities on the forests, while medicinal environments.  

Study Design: The structure of the research was based on three moments: 1. Intervention with the human component (conducting interviews with indigenous families); 2. Intervention with the plant component (preparation of the excicatas of the cited plants and taxonomic identification); 3. Analysis of human and plant components (ethnobotanical study).

Place and Duration of Study: The research developed in a village called Ipaupixuna, whose indigenous families are from Munduruku ethnic group. The duration of the research was six (6) months.

Methodology: The analysis was characterized by Quantitative ethnobotany whose variables analyzed were Relative Frequency of Citation, Use Valour, Level of Fidelity, Relative Popularity and Rank Order Priority. The statistical analysis comprised a Linear Pearson Correlation Matrix for dimensioning the correlation between the ethnobotanical variables.

Results: The results showed rich diversity of species, with 110 plants being raised used by indigenous families in five categories: medicinal, food, crafts, construction and cosmetics.  Arecaceae was the botanical family with the highest number of medicinal species.  Dipteryx odorata was the specie with the highest Relative Frequency, while Plectranthus amboinicus and Caesalpinia ferrea as well as Fredericia chica presented high Use Value for the indigenous.

Conclusions: The indigenous families of Munduruku ethnic group of Tapajós river Basin studied in this research, have in the Forest and in its backyards, sources of plants for multiple uses, thus evidencing the high dependence between indigenous people and Forests. The creation of new spaces called Medicinal Forests and Ethnogardens is essential to contributing to the health safety of indigenous families.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycotoxins Content of Smoked Fishes Sampled on Market Stalls of Ngaoundere and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum against Mycotoxin Producing Strains

Nadege D. Nganou, Eliane S. Tchinda, Alphonse T. Sokamte, Franklin K. Ngoualem, Steve F. Nodem, Marcel T. N. Beumo, Leopold N. Tatsadjieu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330310

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of smoked fish by determining their mycotoxin content, and also the chemical composition, antifungal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum essential oils from Cameroon against some mycotoxigenic fungal strains responsible of the smoked fish biodegradation.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon, from August 2019 to April 2020.

Methodology: Fifteen samples of smoked fishes have been collected in August 2019 from “petit marché” market (Ngaoundere, Cameroon). Physico-chemical parameters of smoked fishes were evaluated. Mycotoxin (AFB1, CIT, and OTA) contents have been determined with HPLC. Isolation and identification of molds were done using their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, and the identity of the strains was done by PCR sequencing methods. For plants, 15 kg of Cymbopogon citratus leaves and 5 kg of Ocimum basilicum leaves have been harvested on 10 September 2019 in Ngaoundere and used for the essential oil’s extraction. Essential oil extraction has been done through hydrodistillation and the determination of its chemical composition done with GC/MS.

Results: Major part of samples contains at least one mycotoxin, in quantities which are beyond the safe dose. Eleven species of molds have been identified: Aspergillus spp., Penicillium citrinum, and Mucor hiemalis. Amongst the isolated species, those which can produce mycotoxins are: Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium moniliforme. Geranial (42.4%), Neral (33.5%) and Myrcene (10.8%) are major compounds found in the essential oil of C. citratus while monoterpens (60.8%), Eugenol (30.7%), Linalol (29.4%) and 1,8-Cineol (14.3%) are the major compounds found in the essential oil of O. basilicum

Conclusion: Essential oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum are efficient against isolated toxigenic species. C. citratus being more efficient than O. basilicum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark of Ficus abutilifolia. Miq (Moraceae)

Djankou Tchoffo Madeleine, Nyemb Jean Noël, Atchade A. de Theodore, Hamidou Abdoulaye, Talla Emmanuel, Sophie Laurent, Celine Henoumont, Djoko Tchuente Cyril Leonel, Joseph Mbafor Tanyi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1330311

Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and chemical components of Ficus abutilifolia. Miq. (Moraceae).

Place and Duration of the Study: The study were performed at Department of chemistry, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon, between July 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Phytochemical study was carried out on all extracts of stem barks. Besides, the total phenols contents (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu and the antioxidant activities using DPPH and FRAP methods were also evaluated. The isolation of compounds from the EtOAc extract was done using column and thin layer chromatographic techniques on silica gel. The structures of isolated constituents were elucidated using mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D-NMR techniques.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed that all the compounds tested were found to be present in the acetone extract; the hexane extract was the poorest in compounds. Acetone extract, DCM/MeOH (1:1) and MeOH extracts were found to be rich in phenols with TPC respectively (239. 849 ± 0.969), (232.676 ± 0.404) and (109.654 ± 0.724) mg EAG/100g EX. Except the n-hexane extract, all the others exhibit antioxidant activities, acetone extract being the most effective with an inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of (0.038 ± 0.002) mg/mL for the DPPH antiradical scavenging activity and (0,021 ± 0,002) mg/mL for FRAP. A new fatty acid named Pentacosyl henicosanoate (2) along with six known compounds Octatriacontane (1), β–sitosterol (3), a mixture of Lupeol acetate (4a), α-amyrin acetate (4b), β-amyrin acetate (4c) and Daucosterol (5) were isolated from the column chromatography of the ethyl acetate extract. Daucosterol (5) exhibited antiradical activity with an IC50 of (13.005 ± 0.005) mg/mL. Only Daucosterol (5) has exhibited antiradical activity with an IC50 of (13.005 ± 0.005) mg/mL among the isolated compounds.

Conclusion: This study provides scientific evidence and support for the traditional uses of F. abutilifolia stem barks in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.