Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Effects of Curcuma longa in Insulin Resistance

Laís Maria Pescinini Salzedas, Giullia Trevisan Covre Simão Batista, Sandra Maria Barbalho

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 86-98
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030286

Background: Curcumin is seen as an anti-hyperglycemic agent that acts by improving the expression of glucose transporters. It is also related to the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin, improvement of insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids, and blood pressure.

Aim: The purpose of this article is to review the effects of Curcuma longa in insulin resistance.

Methodology: PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched, and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis) guidelines were followed to build the review.

Results: Nineteen Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were described according to PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes).

Conclusion: Curcumin could be considered in the therapeutic approach of patients with Insulin Resistance, once it is related to the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, serum fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, serum lipids, and liver transaminases. However, the results depend on the dose, intervention time, and formulation of the compound.Insulin resistance

Open Access Minireview Article

Phytotherapy in Dentistry: A Literature Review Based on Clinical Data

Thaylla Núñez Amin Dick, Letícia Côgo Marques, Amanda de Almeida Lima Lopes, Monique Santana Candreva, Lílian Rocha Santos, Bruna Lavinas Sayed Picciani

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030276

Aims: Looking for scientific support with an updated review about herbal medicines usage in dentistry for clinical application, reinforcing the potential of phytotherapics to treat oral disorders and the need for new studies on the topic.

Material and Methods: The literature search was performed combining “phytotherapy” and “dentistry” in the PubMed, MEDLINE, BBO, LILACS and SciELO databases, covering the period from January 2017 to March 2020. The data extracted were: Alteration/oral disease, gender, age, number of participants, herbal medicine used, drug function and results.

Results: were selected 24 papers that employed different plants, such as Tulsi, Aloe vera, citronella, turmeric, propolis and cloves. The results found are promising and show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral and tranquilizer action of herbal drugs, and their use for treating burning mouth syndrome, oral submucous fibrosis, xerostomia and halitosis.

Conclusion: despite the therapeutic activities of herbal medicines, additional studies with larger sample size and scientific rigor are necessary to prove their benefits for treating oral diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenological Study of a Medicinally Important Plant Leonotis nepetifolia in Jharia Coal Field

Subir Kumar Khawas, P. K. Mishra

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030277

Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae and grows across India by the roadsides or on the barren land field. This plant is medicinally very important. Various parts of the plant are used as depurative, febrifuge, antihelminthic, in relieving cough, in skin problems etc. But the ecology of this plant is also quite interesting. It can even survive the harsh conditions of Jharia coal field where the atmospheric conditions and edaphic factors are not favourable for the growth of various plants. But the plant, Leonotis nepetifolia grows luxuriantly in those stressful conditions as well. Keeping in view this ecological adaptability of this plant the present study was conducted with an objective to study the phenology of this particular plant in various conditions of Jharia coal field of Dhanbad district of Jharkhand so as to know how germination and flowering time of Leonotis nepetifolia changes with adversity so as to understand the ecological aspects quite better. For this, three stressful conditions were chosen where this plant was growing and their phenology was compared with that of the plant growing in controlled conditions. The phenology of this annual plant was found to be quite distinct in different places especially their germination time and death/dormancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardioprotective Activities of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaves on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

A. O. Fajobi, B. O. Emma- Okon, O. O. Oyedapo, C. A. Dare, A. O. Akinlalu, I. J. Komolafe, M. Ogunsusi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 20-37
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030278

The study evaluated the effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extracts on myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in Wistar albino rats with a view to ascertain the value of its use in the management of heart-related diseases. Fresh plant leaves were collected, identified, extracted, fractionated and the aqueous layer partitioned with ethyl acetate. GC-MS was carried out on the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and unknown compounds were identified by comparing measured mass spectral data with those in NIST 14 Mass Spectral Library. Twenty-five adult rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Groups I &II were the control groups. Rats in groups III-V were pretreated with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of EAF and 1.8 mg/kg of propranolol respectively for 21 days. Myocardial infarction was then induced in all the rats (except those in Group I) with the intraperitoneal injection of ISO (85 mg/kg) for 2 days. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples, heart homogenate and samples for histological studies were aseptically collected. Activities of cardiac biomarkers, lipid profile, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated using standard methods. GC-MS analysis showed that the most abundant components of the plant are propionic acid, 2,3-dimethylphenyl ester, catechol, octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, phenol and n-Hexadecanoic acid. Administration of ISO caused significant elevation of the activities of cardiac biomarkers (troponin-T concentrations, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase) while rats pretreated with EAF had significantly lower levels of the biomarkers. Moreover, alterations in lipid profile, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants brought about by the administration of ISO were ameliorated. Histological examinations revealed lesser degree of myocardial injury in pre-treated rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ginger on the Invasion and Migration of Glioma Cells

Manar Zraikat, Munir Gharaibeh, Tasneem Alshelleh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030279

Background: This work studies the effect of different concentrations of soaked ginger on the ability of the U87 glioma cells to invade collagen in a three dimension (3 D) invasion model and compare it with its effect on the ability of the same cell line to migrate in two-dimension (2 D) scratch assay.

Methods: The hanging drop spheroids in 3D invasion assay were used to investigate the in invasion of the U87 cells. The 2D scratch assay was used to investigate the migration of the same cell line.

Results: Gradual effect of the soaked ginger was noticed on the inhibition of the invasion of U87 in collagen and on the inhibition of the migration of the same cell line in scratch assay.

Conclusion: The results in this article are promising and encourage further studies to investigate the effect of ginger active ingredients on tumour progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal and Adulticidal Activities of Neem Oil against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Tephritidae)

Adalton Raga, Sara Braga e Silva, Léo Rodrigo Ferreira Louzeiro, Ester Marques de Sousa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 44-51
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030280

In the laboratory, a neem oil-based formulation was evaluated for its insecticidal potential against the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.), as efficient alternative for growers harvest fruits more harmless for the human consumption. The commercial product was evaluated against eggs in vitro, guavas infested with eggs and young larvae, and adults. The application of 0.8% neem oil significantly reduced the larval hatching of A. fraterculus. Neem oil at 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% significantly reduced the number of pupae and adults per fruit infested with eggs. Guava infested with A. fraterculus eggs and treated with neem oil at 0.8% exhibited a reduction of 90.0% and 92.6% of pupae and adults per fruit, respectively. The same dosage to guava infested by larvae achieved a 44.6 and 51.4% reduction of pupae and larvae, respectively. At 360 minutes after treatment, 0.8% of neem oil provided 67.9% of corrected adult mortality. This double insecticidal effect of neem oil and lack of phytotoxicity in ripe guavas at the tested concentrations demonstrate its potential in biorational management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vigor and Viability of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.) Seeds Subjected to Different Substrates

Helber Véras Nunes, Daniella Inácio Barros, João Pedro Pereira dos Santos, Kaio Rodrigues dos Santos de Oliveira, Bruna Azevedo Barbosa, Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes, Rayane Ferreira Noleto, Ghustavo Higor Alves Costa, Charles Pires Miranda, Kaio Cesar Lima Vale, Liomar Borges de Oliveira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030281

Cagaita originates from the Brazilian Cerrado and belongs to the Myrtaceae family. It is a fruit tree and widely disseminated in the Brazilian Cerrado, and can reach up to 10 meters high. To obtain quality seedlings it is necessary to use substrates that have physical and chemical properties suitable for plant development. Also, the quality of the substrate is directly related to the proportions and the material that makes up the mixture. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education (IFTO), Science and Technology of Tocantins, Gurupi/TO city, from November 1, 2017, to February 26, 2018. Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.) seeds taken directly from the fruit were used to perform the experiment, which was collected in the urban region of Peixe - To in October 2017. Six types of substrates were used for the installation of the experiment, which was: Washed Sand; Washed Sand + Coconut Shell + Black Soil + Poultry Manure; Black Soil; Pine Bark + Poultry Manure + 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax®; Earthworm Humus + Black Soil + 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax®; 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax® + Poultry Manure + Black soil + washed sand. The substrates of earthworm humus + Black Soil + 25% commercial substrate Plantmax® and 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax® + Poultry Manure + Black Soil + Washed Sand provided the highest values of viability and vigor in Cagaita seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Propagation Studies in Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) Using Cuttings

Annjoe V. Joseph, A. Sobhana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030282

Passion fruit is a high value export oriented crop, which is gaining popularity among farmers. One of the constraints in expansion of this crop is availability of quality planting material. Passion fruit is propagated through seed, cutting and grafting. Among these methods, cuttings encourage the production and multiplication of true to type planting material. Therefore, a study was conducted at the Fruits Crops Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, during August 2019 - November 2019 to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of NAA and number of nodes on the rooting of cuttings and survival percentage. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with twenty treatments and two replications. Experiment consisted of two factors, viz. NAA concentration (200 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, 800 ppm and control) and number of nodes (one node, two node, three node and four node), following quick dip method. The study revealed that there was significant variation among the treatments. When the effect of number of nodes alone was considered, four noded cutting had the maximum survival percentage, and higher root and shoot parameters. Improved survival percentage, and enhanced root and shoot characteristics were noticed with the increasing NAA concentration. From the present study, it was concluded that combined effect of more number of nodes and higher NAA concentration had profound effect on survival percentage, shoot length, root length, number of leaves and leaf area and four noded cuttings dipped in 800 ppm NAA, for 3-5 seconds was found to be the best successful propagule for passion fruit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Potential of Costus speciosus L.

Archita Behera, Rajkumari Supriya Devi, Srimay Pradhan, Somali Biswal, Padan Kumar Jena, Susanta K. Biswal, Sanjeet Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 64-72
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030284

Costus speciosus L. is a tuberous plant commonly available in wetlands and near water bodies throughout Odisha state and used as food and medicinal purposes. The tribal communities of the state used the rhizome to cure joint pain, skin infections and consume as nutraceutical. The above claims are supportive of the fact that the rhizome might have antioxidant potentials and might be rich with diverse secondary metabolites. Keeping this in view an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive compounds present in the plant parts and antioxidant potentials in order to validate the tribal claims. Results revealed that the plant parts are rich with phenolic compounds and have antioxidant potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-biofilm Activity of Extracts of Caryota no in Drosophila melanogaster Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Chinonye A. Maduagwuna, Simeon Omale, Steven S. Gyang

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 73-85
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030285

Objectives: To investigate the anti-biofilm activity of the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Caryota no (CN) seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in D. melanogaster.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration: Sample: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019. Methods: 20 flies (1-3 days old) were pricked in the dorsolateral aspect of the abdomen with a modified fly needle dipped in biofilm forming strain of P. aeruginosa inoculum and left to recover and then transferred into the appropriately labeled vials which include different doses of the extracts or those in various control conditions. This process was done in 2 batches of flies treated with extracts prior to infection and flies treated with extracts after infection. The flies were monitored for survival for 72 hours. Mortality records were taken 6 hourly during this period, and the percentage of death determined in each group. The statistical difference among test groups was presumed at P < .05.

Results: The result of n-hexane Caryota no extract showed significantly (P < .05) improved survival (or decreased mortality) when used prophylactically and in curative assays compared to the control. The 400 mg of the n-hexane extract seemed to be the optimal concentration in both prophylactic and curative assays since it showed the least percentage deaths (50% and 43%) respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited a nonsignificant (P > .05) decrease in percentage death prophylactically but direct significant (P < .05) dose-dependent reduction in percentage deaths than the control in the curative studies with the 400 mg dose also showing the least deaths (47%).

Conclusion: The results suggest that both methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Caryota no have potentials as antibiofilm agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Medicinal Plants in Urban Areas in the Municipality of Aliança of Tocantins

Jaqueline Cibene Moreira Borges, Cristiane Mendes Lourenço, Livia Zanatta, Vanderson Ramos Mafra, Saulo José Lima Júnior, Taciano Peres Ferreira, Natallia Moreira Lopes Leão, Andreisa Prieb, Yara Silveira, Christiane Rodrigues de Paula Marques, Nayanne Deusdará Escobar, Marco Túlio Borges Sousa, Thalita Melo França Costa, Sara Falcão de Sousa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 99-113
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030287

Research that takes account of popular uses of medicinal plants, also in urban areas, is important records to subsidize health actions more effectively and safely and maintain the local cultural heritage, as advocated by the national policy of medicinal plants. This study aimed to survey the use of medicinal plants by residents of the municipality of Aliança the Tocantins. In 2011, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 informants in the urban environment, Aliança of Tocantins. Most claimed to have acquired knowledge about medicinal plants with parents and grandparents, 60% and 25.7%, respectively. 62.9% of the interviewees obtained the plants in their backyard and 30% in the backyard of neighbors or relatives. The families with the highest number of species were Lamiaceae with 4 species (40%), Asteraceae and Malvaceae with 2 species each (20%). There were 82 therapeutic properties about the species mentioned, with a higher number of citations for "other indications" (25.6%), such as pain in general, back pain, malaise, dizziness, among others. The most used form of preparation was tea (81.4%) and the leaf was the most used organ (81.4%). Of the informants, 61.4% prefer to use home remedies instead of industrialized medicines. The informants, even living in the urban environment (82.8%), still know and frequently use the local medicinal flora, this being an indication of strong local cultural appeal and feasibility of encouraging green backyards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Snake Venom Enzymes and Antivenom Adjuvant Effects of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) Leaf Extracts

Ibrahim Sani, Rabi’u Aliyu Umar, Sanusi Wara Hassan, Umar Zaki Faruq, Fatima Bello, Abubakar Abdulhamid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 114-128
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030288

Snake venom enzymes are the key substances involved in snake venom toxicity. Thus, inactivating these enzymes is generally considered to be the fundamental step in the management of snakebite. Conventionally, snakebite envenomation is treated parenterally with serum-based antivenins, and adjuvants to these antivenins are required for maximum protection of victims. Hence, this research was aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extracts on Naja nigricollis Reinhardt venom enzymes and screens for their antivenom adjuvant effects. A. indica leaf was collected, authenticated and extracted using 95% methanol followed by fractionation using hexane and ethyl acetate. The venom enzymes inhibition assays was evaluated using in vitro methods, while, adjuvant effect was screened using Albino rats. The results revealed that both the hexane and the ethyl acetate fractions showed capability of inhibiting the venom enzymes significantly (P<0.05) when compared with the venom controls in varying degrees of efficacies. For the adjuvant effect, no significant effect (P>0.05) of the venom at the administered dose was observed on bleeding time, clotting time, defibrinogenating and haemorrhagic effects compared to the normal control. However, the size of necrotic lesion and the percentage haemolysis were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the venom control rats. Both the hexane and the ethyl acetate fractions significantly mitigated these effects in the treated animals. The degree of protection was about 3 folds more than when the antivenin was used alone. Finally, these findings would be of importance in the area of drug development with a view to actualizing the substitution or enhancing the effect of conventional snakebite therapeutic options.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils of Four Species of the Lamiaceae Family

Dalva Paulus, Luana Aline Luchesi, Cleverson Busso, Marcela Tostes Frata, Paula Juliane Barbosa de Oliveira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 129-140
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030289

Aims: The biological properties of essential oils represent possible therapeutic alternatives, with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, and application in many areas of the industry. The objective was to determine the yield, chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, Pogostemon cablin, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the microbiology laboratory of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Brazil, in the period between June 2016 to May 2017.

Methodology: The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity was determined by microdilution in broth, showing minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH).

Results: The average yields of essential oils from L. angustifolia, P. cablin, R. officinalis,and  T. vulgaris were (%) 0.85; 2.0; 1.20, and 1.19, respectively. The major components of lavender essential oil were linalyl acetate (40.1%) and linalool (35.2%); for P. cablin - patchoulol (31.5%), seichelene (13.6%) and α-bulnesene (15.6%); for rosemary - camphor (32.5%), 1.8-cineole (13.6%) and α-pinene (9.8); for T. vulgaris - thymol (47%), o-scimene (21.6%), and carvacrol (11.4%). Thyme oil showed the best results for antibacterial activity, and low values (0.195 µL mL-1) of minimum inhibitory concentration were needed to inhibit S. aureus and S. enteritidis, and for L. angustifolia, P. cablin, and R. officinalis higher concentrations of essential oil were required. The essential oils of P. cablin and T. vulgaris had the strongest antioxidant properties (12.08 and 10.2 µmol trolox mL−1).

Conclusion: The essential oils evaluated have an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms under study and also interesting antioxidant activity, which could be used by medicine to control bacterial infections, with potential application as natural food preservatives and as nutraceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Potentials of Leaf and Root Extracts of Calliandra portoricensis (Jacq)-benth (Fabaceae) on Some Human Pathogens

N. E. Oguegbulu, A. K. Abo, O. E. Afieroho

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 141-151
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030290

The plant Calliandra portoricesis had been widely used over the years in traditional medicine. Such uses included; treatment of swollen gum, tooth ache and inflammation, worm expeller, viperean venom antidote and more. This investigation was aimed at screening and anti-microbial evaluation of various leaf and root extracts of the plant. By this, explore substitution of root with leaf as excessive root harvesting could lead to shrub extinction. The dried and pulverized samples were subjected to successive extraction using solvents of varying polarities; n-hexane, ethyl acetate and 70% aqueous methanol. The respective extracts were concentrated en vacuo in a rotatory evaporator at temperature not exceeding 40°C. Seven human pathogens were selected comprising the G +ve, G-ve, fungi, group that was known to acquire resistance easily and nosocomial strains namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococus fecalis, Candida albican and Aspergillus nigar. Ciprofloxacin and fluconazole solutions served as the control reference standards. Agar well diffusion assay method was used and the Inhibition Zone Diameters (mm) of growth were measured to assess activities for all the extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concenyrations (MIC) and Total Activity (TA) were also determined. The experimental values indicated that both leaf and root materials of this plant exhibited anti bacterial and anti fungal properties on the selected human pathogens especially with respect to the reference control standards at P ≤ 0.05. Except for anthraquinones, the leaf though exhibited weaker activities than root for same quantity of materials showed close similarity in activity pattern. In this sense, with an appropriate quantitative adjustments, leaf material could effectively substitute the root for antimicrobial purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation of a Rare Medicinal Plant: A Case Study of Griffonia simplicifolia (Vahl ex DC) Baill

Musibau Muyiwa Balogun, Muhali Olaide Jimoh, Oluwatoyin Temitayo Ogundipe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 152-160
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030291

This study aimed at carrying out the vegetative propagation of Griffonia simplicifolia. This was achieved by growing nodal and stem cuttings of G. simplicifolia using two types of soils under varying environmental conditions including open area and humidity propagator. This revealed that terminal nodal stem cuttings showed the best growth forms in terms of shoot development as well as root development when subjected to open area and topsoil. However, when subjected to the humid propagator and river sand, the distal stem cuttings gave the best growth forms thereby promoting shoot and root development. Hence, it is concluded that the terminal nodes are the best parts to be used for the propagation of G. simplicifolia and the best growth medium is river sand. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that G. simplicifolia can be reproduced through macro propagation using stem cuttings and it can be seen as a basis for conservation and other breeding research on G. simplicifolia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cytokinins on in vitro Culture of Bauhinia purpurea L.

Belai Meeta Suwal Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030292

Bauhinia purpurea L. is a moderate-sized tree with multipurpose value tree yields gum, its bark contains tannin and leaves are used as fodder. It is distributed in sub-Himalayan tracts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cytokinins on growth parameters of B. purpurea and develop a standard micropropagation protocol for nodes and shoot proliferations. The cytokinins used in this study were N-Benzyl-9(2-tetrahydropyranyl) (BPA), 6-furfurylaminopurine, Kinetin (Kn), 6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-trans-2-butenylaminopurine) (Zeatin) (Zin), 2-isopentenyl aminopurine, (2-iP) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 µM). Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium was used for the experimental purpose. Multiplication rate of plants was recorded after 8 weeks of culture. Such propagated best grown plants were acclimatized and transferred to the field. All the collected data were worked out statistically with SPSS, a system of analytical procedure

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Selected Plant Extracts against Some Medically and Agriculturally Important Pathogens

Yirgashewa Asfere, Ameha Kebede, Dejene Zinabu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 167-189
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030293

In Ethiopia, many plants are used for medicinal drive-by old-style naturopaths without any scientific justification for their therapeutic values. The principal aim of this study were to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the leaf, root and stem bark extracts of Rhamnus prinioides (gesho), Justicia schimperiana (sensel) and Ruta chalepensis (Tena adam) against some common pathogenic species of bacteria and fungi. The results of this study shown that the crude extracts of ethanol, methanol, hexane and water crude extracts had antimicrobial activities on most bacterial and fungi species of some solvent extracts. Ethanol and methanol crude extracts had the highest growth inhibitory effects as compared with those of the aqueous and hexane crude extracts. But, the four solvent crude extracts had fewer antimicrobial activities than commercially available drug(chloramphenicol and clotrimazole). Campylobacter jejuni and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be the most vulnerable microbes to the crude ethanol (99.5%). The growth-inhibitory events of the crude extracts were found to be significantly dissimilar for both concentrations (30 and 60 mg/ml) in all plant parts (p < 0.05). In general, this study did not only indicate that the antibacterial activities of R. prinioides (gesho), J. schimperiana (sensel) and R. chalepensis (Tena adam). It also accesses a scientific justification for its old-style use against some diseases.