Open Access Systematic Review Article

Diabetes, What is the Benefit in the Use of Medicinal Plants as an Optional form Adjuvant to Medicines?A Systematic Review

Igor Domingos de Souza, Francisco José Mendes dos Reis, Hugo Vieira Ramos, Eliza Miranda Ramos, Valter Aragão do Nascimento

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930267

Aims: To present a description of the benefits in the use of three plant models, in this case, Bauhinia forficata, Eleusine Indica and Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in the antidiabetic actions addressed through its mechanism of pharmacological and antioxidant action.

Methodology: In this study, the systematic review methods was used.

Results: The extracted studies totaled 146 randomized and experimental articles with rats and animals, at the end of the study extraction, only six covered all inclusion criteria and were used in the short review.

Conclusion: This systematic short review on the use of Bauhiana Forficata, Eleusine Indica and Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth verified the ability to reduce the hyperglycemia of these plants in association with drug treatment in diabetic patients and, thus, brings a promising answer by decreasing worsening and has protective enzymatic and antioxidant activities thus, it favors the reduction of hyperglycemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relative Proximate Composition and Mineral Analysis of Three Garlic Varieties Available in Bangladesh

Dipa Islam, Nazia Nawshad Lina, Rajib Kanti Roy, Chadni Lyzu, Zubayed Ahamed, Samina Akhter, Liton Chandra Mohanta, Evena Parvin Lipy, Mahmuda Hakim, Dipankar Chandra Roy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930265

Garlic is one of the most common spices in south-east Asian cuisine. Since ancient times, it has been used as traditional medicine, herbal remedies and flavoring ingredients. Large varieties of garlic are available across the world. The majority of Bangladeshi markets are availed with three of its varieties. These are Imported Large Multi-clove garlic from India or China, Bangladeshi Indigenous Multi-clove and Single-clove garlic. This study was aimed to investigate proximatecomposition, mineral concentration and energy value of Imported Large Multi-clove variety, Bangladeshi Indigenous Multi-clove and Single clove garlic. Imported Large Multi-clove variety was found to contain 6.53±0.08% moisture, 70.25±0.27% carbohydrate, 18.92±0.04% protein, 0.57±0.16% fat and 3.72±0.03% ash, whereas Indigenous Single-clove and Multi-clove contain 7.80±0.04% & 6.51±0.04% moisture, 71.41±0.09%&72.73±0.06%carbohydrate, 17.37± 0.06% and 17.40±0.04% protein, 0.19±0.01% and 0.21±0.02% fat, 3.22±0.01% and 3.14±0.02% ash respectively. Few Significant Distinction Were observed in nutrient and calorie contents. No single variety could be adjudged nutritionally superior or inferior to others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Antidiabetic Efficacy of Unripe and Ripe Fruit Extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii and the Possible Mechanism of Action

Xiangli Xu, Fenglai Lu, Ziming Yang, Xiaojie Yan, Theophine Akunne, Dianpeng Li

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930266

Aims: The ripe fruit of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treatment of diabetes. The ripe fruit is very edible, nutritious and of high sweet taste, while the unripe fruit which is usually very bitter and not edible, has not been widely studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of the unripe fruit of S. grosvenorii and to compare it with that of the ripe fruit as well as to determine their possible mechanism of action.

Methodology: The method of streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic animal model in mice was employed and mice with blood glucose greater than 9.0 mmol/l were selected for treatment with unripe fruit extract (UFE) and ripe fruit extract (RFE) for 24 days. Alpha-glucosidase and alpha amylase enzymes inhibitory assays for determination of possible mechanism of action, were performed.

Results: The RFE exhibited better efficacy in antidiabetic activity than the UFE, though the later displayed better potency in activity. The RFE, UFE (300 mg/kg) and glibenclamide exhibited significant (P<0.05) percentage blood glucose reduction (PBGR) of 67.04, 60.69 and 62.88%, respectively, in diabetic mice. Alpha glucosidase assay showed median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 7.60 and 6.62 mg/ml for RFE and UFE, respectively, while the alpha amylase inhibitory assay exhibited percentage inhibition of 84.78 and 95.10% for RFE and UFE (25 mg/ml), respectively.

Conclusion: The ripe and unripe extracts of S. grosvenorii exhibited antidiabetic activities, and RFE proved a better efficacious activity than UFE, which showed more potent activity. In addition, the antidiabetic activity is likely being mediated through alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase enzymes inhibition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Growth, Yield and Active Ingredients in Fenugreek Plants under Different Potassium Fertilizer Rates and Kaolin Application

Nahed S. A. El-Shayeb, Reem H. I. Hassan, Marwa A. Ahmed, Mohammed A. I. Abdelkader

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930268

A split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was planned at Experimental Farm, Agriculture Faculty, Zagazig University, Egypt during the two consecutive seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020. Aiming to study the effect of different potassium fertilization rate (0.0, 24 and 48 K2O kg/feddan) and different kaolin concentrations (0.0, 15, 30 and 45 g/l) as well as their combination treatments on growth parameters, yield components, fixed oil, and active ingredient. Results indicated that growth parameters (plant height, branch number/ plant and dry weight/plant), yield components (number of pods/plant, seed yield/ plant and /feddan) and chemical constituents (total chlorophyll, total nitrogen, potassium, total carbohydrates, mucilage and trigonelline content) were influenced by experimental factors. Furthermore, the highest rate of potassium fertilization recorded significant increase in these above parameters compared to control. In the same trend, the highest values in this concern of Trigonella feonum-graecum was observed with 30 or 45 g/l of kaolin compared to control. Moreover, applied 48 kg K2O /feddan was more efficient than 24 kg and control when combined with kaolin at 30 or 45 g /l, in most cases. Generally, this combination treatments seems promising in enhancing fenugreek growth and productivity under Sharkia Governorate conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antivenom Potential of Solanum dasyphyllum Methanolic Leaf and Fruit Extracts against Naja nigricollis Venom

Adewunmi Rofiat Funmilola, Gidado Abubakar, Zanna Hassan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930269

Solanum dasyphyllum belongs to the family of plants called Solanaceae, it is commonly called "Africa eggplant" and one of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of snake envenomation in the southwestern part of Nigeria, but investigation concerning its anti-venom activity has not been established. The present study evaluates the in-vitroenzyme inhibition potential of S.dasyphyllum leaf and fruit extracts against Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra) venom. The inhibitory potential of S. dasyphyllum leaf and fruit on proteases, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A2 and hyaluronidase enzymes present in the snake venom was evaluated. The methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of S. dasyphyllum inhibited the activity of all enzymes evaluated, however, the leaf extract exhibited better enzyme inhibitory effect on N. nigricollis venom when compared with the fruit. This could be due to the presence of various phytochemicals in leaf and fruit extract.  This result substantiates the ethnomedicinal usage of S. dasyphyllum and would help to develop potent antidote therapy against N. nigricollis envenomation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viscothionin Suppresses Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer via Inhibiting the STAT3 Signaling Pathway

Seo-Hyun Ahn, Hye Bin Yoon, Eun-Jong Jeon, Jong-Heum Park, Jungkee Kwon

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930270

Lung cancer is a crucial cause of mortality world-wide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are important signaling factors in malignant diseases and are constantly activated in 22% ~ 65% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. STAT3 can be activated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) which induces cell growth in various cancer cells. Although viscothionin is studied for various health beneficial effects, the anticancer effect of viscothionin has not been studies so far against lung cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the anticancer effect of a polypeptide, viscothionin in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells, which represents NSCLC. To do this, cultured NCI-H460 cells were treated with viscothionin and/or IL-6, and the cell viability, as well as expression levels of STAT3, Akt, mTOR, Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, including caspase-3 after activity were assessed. As a result, cell viability was decreased in the viscothionin-treated group as compared to control. Also, viscothionin significantly decreased STAT3, Akt and mTOR protein expression levels in NCI-H460 cells. Additionally, the levels of the Bax, an apoptotic protein were increased than the control group, whereas the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were decreased than the control group. Protein level of IL-6 shows the reversible effect compared to viscothionin. Taken together, these results demonstrate that viscothionin exhibits potent anticancer effect in NSCLC through STAT3 inhibition, and could be considered a natural agent of lung cancer therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in Foumban and Dschang Cities (West-Cameroon)

Nadine Joissy Epoh, Olivette Laure Matafack Dongmo, Félicité Mbiapo Tchouanguep, Phelix Bruno Telefo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 54-70
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930271

Aim: Obesity is a public health problem on a global and national scale. It is associated with high blood pressure, type II diabetes and certain metabolic complications. In Cameroon, obesity is observed in both rural and urban population where the people are still very attached to traditional values to solve their health problems. The present study was aimed at determining antiobesity medicinal plants used by the traditional healers in the Foumban and Dschang Municipalities.

Methodology: An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against obesity was conducted in 2 localities, Foumban and Dschang, of the western region of Cameroon. The questionnaire was submitted and the information was collected via oral interviews with traditional healers and the people of the localities who benefited from anti-obesity treatments based on medicinal plants.

Results: Twenty five medicinal plants belonging to 16 families and used in the management of obesity were identified. Leaves and bark are the most used plant parts; they are followed by fruits (seeds) and Roots. Most herbal remedies are prepared as decoction in Foumban (30%) and Dschang (62%) respectively. The most common plant used by these people was Solanum indicum (49.27%, Foumban) and Tetrapleura tetraptera (40%, Dschang).

Conclusion: Relatively to the management of obesity with medicinal plants, the population of these localities presented interesting knowledge. However, there is still a need for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations of the above common and most used ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Fractioned Components from Dacryodes edulis: Invitro Study

R. E. Hassan-Olajokun, A. M. Deji-Agboola, O. O. Olasunkanmi, T. A. Banjo, O. Olaniran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 71-82
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930272

Introduction: The history of the relationship between man and plants is as old as creation and man has used plants for different purposes including food and medicines. In this dispensation, man has been able to classify plants into food and medicinal plants and has also discovered that solution to his health problem comes from nature.

Objectives: The antibacterial activities of the dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous (AQU) fractions of acetone extract of Dacryodes edulis leaf were investigated against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial organisms made up of locally isolated and standard strains.

Materials and Methods: About 1 kg of the powdered leaves of D. edulis was extracted at room temperature (25-27oC) using 75% acetone for 3 days. The mixture was then filtered and the filtrate was dried in vacuo using a rotary evaporator (insert the make and model). The crude extract was successfully partitioned using organic solvents in order of their polarity, that is, n-Hexane, DCM, n-Butanol, Ethylacetate. The sensitivity testing of the extracts against the organisms was determined using agar-well diffusion method as described by Irobi et al. [1].

Results: DCM and aqueous (AQU) fractions possessed closely related broad spectrum antibacterial activities and greater activity than the control standard antibiotics (Streptomycin and Ampicillin). The zones of inhibition exhibited by AQU fraction ranged between 20 and 30 mm while that of DCM fraction ranged between 22 and 32 mm. On the other hand, the zones of inhibition observed for the standard antibiotics, streptomycin ranged between 10 and 20 mm and ampicillin between 11 and 27 mm. The MIC and MBC of both fractions had range values between 0.78 and 6.25 mg/mL, evaluation of phytochemical composition of D. edulis revealed alkaloid (30.63 mg/g), terpenoid (19.72 mg/g), saponins (10.54 mg/g), tannin (9.14 mg/g), flavonoid (6.51 mg/g) and glycoside (6.29 mg/g) which are very significant antibacterial agents in medicinal plants.

Conclusion: This work indicates that the two fractions had better antibacterial potentials than the standard antibiotics used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostic Study of Justicia beddomei (C. B. Clarke) Bennet

C. Haleshi, A. N. Sringeswara, Vijay Danapur

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930273

Justicia beddomei (C. B. Clarke) Bennet synonym Adhatoda beddomei C.B. Clarke consists of the fresh or dried leaves Dried leaves are of a dull brownish-green colour, characteristic odour and bitter taste. The leaves of the plant contain major alkaloids called vasicine, vasicinone and deoxyvasicinone, sitosterol and its glucoside, which are shown to be having bronchodilator and antihistaminic effects. These alkaloids are said to exist in combination with an acid that has been named adhatodic acid. Leaves yield essential oil and an alkaloid vasicine. Roots contain vasicinol and vasicinone. Roots also contain vasicoline, adhatodine, anisotine and vasicolinone. Several alkaloids like quinazoline and valicine are present in this plant. The leaf extracts of Justicia beddomei (C. B. Clarke) Bennet is used as an expectorant especially in chronic bronchitis and asthma. It relieves cough and breathlessness. It is also prescribed commonly for local bleeding due to peptic ulcer, piles etc. Its local use gives relief in pyorrhoea and in bleeding gums. In the present study, detailed Pharmacognosy of this plant is studied as it is used as substitute for Adathoda vasica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micropropagation of Salacia macrosperma Wight - An Endemic Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

C. Mahendra, M. S. Sudarshana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 100-111
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930283

Salacia macrosperma Wight. -  a potent medicinal plant facing the verge of rare and endemic status in the Western Ghats region of southern India. The effective protocol has been standardized for callus induction and multiple shoot regeneration using leaf and nodal explants. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with various plant growth regulators like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Benzyl amino purine (BAP), Thidiazuron (TDZ), Indole acetic acid (IAA), Kinetin (Kn), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Indole butyric acid (IBA). The leaf explants produced more calli than nodal explants in MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and BAP in combination than individual hormones. Likewise, MS medium with 1.5 mg L-1of 2, 4-D, 2.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 1.5 mg L-1of TDZ along with 1% activated charcoal was apt for multiple shoot regeneration (93.33%) from nodal explants with slight embryogenic callus. Further, each developed plantlets were produced maximum rhizogenesis in liquid MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of IAA. Furthermore, the cytological study of embryogenic callus revealed variations in callus cells such as multinucleate, multi-nucleolate, cytodifferentiation, chromosomal bridges were noticed, besides normal dividing stages. Further, by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) analysis of embryogenic callus different stages of morphogenic developmental features were recorded.

Open Access Review Article

Gestational Diabetes Review: Maternal-fetal Comorbidities and Treatment with Medicinal Plants

Saulo José de Lima Júnior, Tatyanne Milhomens Soares, Vanderson Ramos Mafra, Sara Falcão de Sousa, Jaqueline Cibene Moreira Borges, Natallia Moreira Lopes Leão, Andreisa Prieb, Yara Silveira, Rodrigues de Paula Marques, Nayanne Deusdará Escobar, Marco Túlio Borges Sousa, Thalita Melo França Costa, Taciano Peres Ferreira, Janne Marques Silveira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 89-99
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i930275

Gestational Diabetes is a condition characterized by hyperglycemia that provides a drop-in insulin performance in its appropriate receptors by hormones secreted by the placenta and fetus. The main fetal comorbidities are macrosomia, growth disorder, and congenital and maternal anomalies in gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, vascular injury, and post-gestational diabetes. This study addressed the possible treatments with medicinal plants in gestational diabetes. Medicinal plants that have the diabetic purpose were researched, however, many pregnant women use and do not know the effects that can happen for the fetus and also for itself, the plants used for this work is not satisfactory for pregnant women with diabetes, but for non-diabetics, some are beneficial for treating this pathology. It becomes necessary for people to know the effects of plants that are used to treat certain types of diseases because most often in great excess can be fatal. All of them presented satisfactory results in a study for diabetes mellitus in non-pregnant patients, but the study presented by Cow's Paw (Bauhinia forficata l.) in pregnant rats with diabetes showed harmful results in embryo implantation and there was no glycemic control, which leads us to investigate further under the use of all plants in the treatment of gestational diabetes.