Open Access Minireview Article

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. as a Potential Anti-COVID-19 Plant: A Mini-review of Its Antiviral Activity

Pius T. Mpiana, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Jason T. Kilembe, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Domaine T. Mwanangombo, Clement L. Inkoto, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Clement M. Mbadiko, Aristote Matondo, Gedeon N. Bongo, Dorothée D. Tshilanda

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830261

Aims: A novel β-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has become a pandemic affecting hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. Since there is no effective treatment, the need of finding alternative methods which can help to curb this pandemic is urgent. This study aims to review the literature on the virucidal and cytotoxic properties of Aloe vera, one of the most studied plants considered as a nutraceutical in order to propose it as an alternative solution against COVID-19.

Methodology: The literature review was based mainly on the COVID-19 resources that have been made freely available to the scientific community but also on the usual databases such as Pubmed and Google scholar.

Results: The literature review shows that the plant has antiviral activity on several types of virus (Haemorrhagic Viral Rhobdavirus Septicaemia, Herpes simplex virus type 1, Herpes simplex virus type 2, Varicella-Zoster virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Influenza virus, poliovirus, Cytomegalovirus, Human papillomavirus) including coronavirus SARS-CoV-1. The plant is consumed orally in several forms and is safe. It is possible that  molecules of this plant that have already shown effectiveness on other viruses by some mechanisms such as interaction of virus enzyme, breakdown of the viral envelope etc. could participate in the action of the plant. Also, the presence of minerals such as Zinc, which have shown an effect on SARS-CoV-1, could be involved in the antiviral effect of Aloe vera.

Conclusion: Molecular docking of the main molecules of Aloe vera with SARS-CoV-2 protease is in progress and clinical trials are necessary to confirm the activity of Aloe vera on COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Safety Evaluation of Hura crepitans (L.) Stem Bark Hydroethanolic Extract in Animals

Oluwole Sunday Owojuyigbe, Caleb Kesse Firempong, Gustav Komlaga, Christopher Larbie, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830255

Background and Objectives: Medicinal plants have become popular in the search ofa cure for various hepatopathies with a considerable number of herbal products being used for the management of liver ailments. However, most, including Hura crepitans (HC), have not been toxicologically evaluated. The present study was aimed at determining the phytoconstituents of HC, their antioxidant potentials and safety in animals.

Place and Duration: The study was performed at the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, KNUST, Kumasi and subacute toxicity studies lasted for 14 days.

Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic extracts and fractions of the leaves and stem back of HC were assessed for their phytochemical constituent,DPPH and FRAP scavenging activities and total phenolic and total flavonoid content. The acute and sub acute oral toxicity of the hydroethanolic stem back of HCin animals was evaluated using standard methods to establish the LD50, effect on weight, haematological and biochemical parameters.Phytochemical characterization was achieved using standard methods.

Results: The study showed that HC contained tannins, saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, glycosides, and triterpenoids. The hydroethanolic extract of the stem bark (EES) showed the greatest antioxidant potential. The LD50 estimate of the hydroethanolic extract of stem back was greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route, while the doses used in this study up to 1000 mg/kg body weight/oral route was safe. The extract generally did not cause any significant decrease in the weight of animals nor were there significant differences in relative organ weights in treated animals compared to the normal group. Haematology, liver function, kidney function, and serum electrolyte parameters were within the normal ranges in treated animals when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: The results showed that oral administration of hydroethanolic extract of Hura crepitansin animals up to 1000 mg/kg body weight is considered safe as it causes no significant derangement in clinical and haemato-biochemical parameters measured.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Activity of Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. Extracts and Fractions on Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae and Adult Worms

Nestor Gipwe Feussom, Hermine Boukeng Jatsa, Mérimé Christian Kenfack, Emilienne Tienga Nkondo, Ulrich Membe Femoe, Joseph Bertin Kadji Fassi, Christelle Dongmo Tsague, Etienne Dongo, Paul Désiré Djomeni Dzeufiet, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-30
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830256

Aims: Continuous attempts are being made to develop new and more effective drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf. is a medicinal plant used in Africa for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, lower abdominal pain, dystocia and intestinal helminthiasis. This study provides findings on the cercaricidal and schistosomicidal activity of extracts and fractions of Ozoroa pulcherrima in in vitro assays.

Methodology: The aqueous and methanolic extracts from Ozoroa pulcherrima root parts (62.5 – 2000 µg/mL), as well as the methanol derived fractions (n-hexane and ethyl acetate: 31.25 – 1000 µg/mL) were tested on cercariae and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. Niclosamide-olamine 5% (1 µg/mL) and praziquantel (10 µg/mL) were respectively used as reference drugs. During the assays, the mortality of cercariae after 2 hours, and adult worms’ mobility and mortality after 48 hours of incubation were evaluated.

Results: Ozoroa pulcherrima extracts and fractions significantly increased cercariae and worm mortality in a concentration-dependent manner. The methanolic extract was the most active on cercariae with a LC50of 20.65 µg/mL after 30 minutes, while the n-hexane fraction was the most active on worm with a LC50 of 79.54 μg/mL (65.58 – 96.47 μg/mL) after 48 hours. Significant reduction of motor activity (18.47 to 100%) was recorded for surviving worms incubated in different concentrations of the extracts and fractions.

Conclusion: This study proves that Ozoroa pulcherrima extracts and fractions have cercaricidal and schistosomicidal activities. Ozoroa pulcherrima may have great potential as an anti-schistosomal agent for further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinally Important Tree Species from Choolannur Pea Fowl Sanctuary, Kerala, India

V. M. Mohamed Shijad, K. M. Khaleel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-60
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830258

As trees are the dominant biotic component of any forest ecosystem it plays an important role in the plant kingdom and greatest contributors of food, shelter, fuel, medicine along with friendly environment for sustaining life on earth. The aim of the present study is to explore the medicinal tree wealth in Choolannur Pea Fowl Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Frequent field trips were made for the exploration and identification of tree species present in the deciduous forest of the sanctuary. It was observed that the nearby villagers of the study area have been used 45 plants belonging to 22 families as a remedy for various illnesses. The plant species used against different human ailments have been enumerated in the present paper and each species has been provided with botanical name followed by voucher number, family name, local name, plant part used and medicinal properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Approach: Potential Diuretic Activity of M. charantia Linn. on Alloxan Induced Albino Wistar Rats in Diabetes Mellitus

Umesh B. Wahul, Ambadas S. Kadam, Laxmikant H. Kamble, Ayaz S. Ali

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 61-75
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830259

The screening of perfect diuretics for non –clinical utility in Diabetes mellitus is a relatively novel approach which gain insight into underlying the pathophysiological processes.

This study aim to evaluate the diuretic effect of crude aqueous & alcoholic extract of M. charantia Linn. using Albino Wistar Rat model. The methodology of animal study includes the spectral analysis of Na+, K+, Cl-concentration against the body weight, this was done by spectrophotometry. In this study, the comparative observation of Diuretic activity with standard and extracted compound has shown that the estimated 24‐hour urine contains the Na+-3.82 g, 3.82 g, 3.92 g  and K+-1.35 g, 1.39 g, 1.48 gwt. For Vehicle control, Standard drug, and Extracted compound respectively. Which possess the favouring result means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 hand 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Coefficients were 0.035, 0.022, 0.046 at (d±2SD=7.07 g, 4.42 gand 8.92 g) for sodium chloride and 0.068, 0.031, 0.046 at (d ± 2SD = 4.92 g, 2.31 g and 3.34 g) for potassium chloride. The present study guide formulation of non-clinical trials with statistical study to further measuring the claimed efficacy of M. charantia as a natural remedy for diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hygienic Status of the Stem Bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) E.A. Bruce (Rubiaceae) Stored and Sold at Medicinal Plant Market (Côte d'Ivoire)

Rasmane Na Ahou Kaddy, Coulibaly Kalpy Julien, Kandé Brahima, Kouamé Kouassi Bernadin, Djedjagne Marhe Ursule Desirée, Dosso Mireille, Koné Mamidou Witabouna

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 76-85
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830260

Aims: The present study relates to the hygienic status of medicinal plants sold on markets of the district of Abidjan. This paper focused on Sarcocephalus latifolius used to treat various diseases such as Malaria.

Place and Duration of Study: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted during November 2017, on the Siaka Koné market in Abobo. The microbiology study was carried out at “InstitutPasteur de Côte d’Ivoire”.

Methodology: A semi-structured interview was used during the survey. Germs were isolated and microbial load counted from aqueous extracts (maceration) of collected samples of stem bark using standard bacteriology methods. Investigations were also made on control sample collected in the Savannah at Lamto reserve (Toumodi).

Results: 86% of the plants sold on this market are not well maintained. In fact, 53% of plant organs are stored outdoors on pieces of brick exposed to dust, air humidity and car exhaust. While 20% are under black tarpaulins or stored in dilapidated stores away from light and 13% in bags in open air. To confirm our survey, Sarcocepha luslatifolius was selected from the highest frequency of citations for performing microbiological tests. The number of total coliforms ranged from 1.3×103 to 9.2×107 CFU/g plant, the mean value of total coliforms was 4.7×105 CFU/g, that of mesophilic aerobic germs from 8.1×103 to 5.1×105 CFU/g of plants, the average value of mesophilic aerobic germs was 1.2×105 CFU/g. The presence of Streptococcus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli was observed respectively on 93.33%, 16.67% and 3.33% of the samples collected.

Conclusion: Medicinal plants sold and stored under current market conditions are potentially dangerous to health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Anti-epileptic Studies of Ethanol Extract of Boswellia dalzielii (Frankincense Tree) Stem Bark

Asinamai Ndai Medugu, James Yakubu, Usiju Ndai Medugu, Hussaini Isa Marte, Fave Yohanna Tata, Victor Musa Balami

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830262

Aim: This research work aimed to establish scientific basis for the use of Boswellia dalzielli stem bark, in traditional medicine as anti-epileptic medication.

Methodology: The fresh stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii was extracted using absolute ethanol and screened for phytochemicals. Acute toxicity study was carried out using Lorke’s method and the antiepileptic activity was evaluated using maximal electroshock induced seizure test in day-old broiler chicks and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) using Wistar strain mice.

Results: Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of B. dalzielii stem bark revealed that the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenoides. The intrapertoneal median lethal dose value (LD50) of BDE in mice was 2592.3 mg/kg, indicating the stem bark extract is relatively safe. The extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight protected 40% of animals against PTZ-induced convulsion and also protected 20% of chicks against Tonic Hindlimb Extension (THLE) phase of the Maximal Electroshock Test (MEST) significantly (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The antiepileptic investigation suggests that ethanol extract of B. dalzielii stem bark has antiepileptic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Cough in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. C. Ariyo, M. B. Usman, M. M. Olorukooba, M. O. Ariyo, R. Suleiman, O. S. Aasa, A. J. Adetunji, O. B. Oni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 101-113
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830263

Majority of people in developing countries rely on Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs) or herbalist, hunters and community elders for the treatments of various diseases and illness due to their vast knowledge of medicinal plant usage. There is need to protect the flora and fauna and also the knowledge database often stored in the memories of elders, ancestral and traditional healers. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of cough was carried out in Akinyele Local Government with the aim to document plants and indigenous knowledge of local people in the treatment of cough. Eight villages were selected purposively due to the relics of forest in those villages. The villages are Ijaye, Onidundu, Otunagbakin, Moniya, Idi- ose, Apapa, Aroro and Olanla. Respondents were stratified into 2 strata in each of the villages, namely Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs) or herbalist and hunters. Within each stratum, a random selection of 10 respondents were carried out thereby making 20 respondents in each village and total number of  160 respondents as sample size. Semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. The interview was conducted one-on-one using the local language (Yoruba). The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that a total number of 16 plants belonging to 13 families were recorded and enumerated along with their botanical name, family and local name. Information on methods of preparation of the recipes, plant part used, form in which plant part is used, mode of administration, dosage and shelf life were also documented. There is need for domestication and conservation of these plants to prevent their extinction. The bioactive compound in some of these plants can be synthesized together to produce conventional drugs for cough. Further studies should also be carried out on these plant species to obtain more information on their bioactive properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Compostions of Essential Oils and Antimicrobial Activity of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

Nguyen Thanh Chung, Le Thi Huong, Do Ngoc Dai, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830264

Aims: This present study described the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of essential oils hydrodistiled from the leaves and flowers of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.

Study Design: This research was designed to accommodate different stages such as collection of authentic sample of Hyptis suaveolens, obtain essential oil by hydrodistillation, chemical analysis of the oil samples by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and screening of the essential oils for antimicrobial activity.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Natural Science, Vinh University, Vinh City, Nghệ An Province, Vietnam, between August and December 2018.

Methodology: The leaves and flowers of H. suaveolens used for this study were gotten from Đồng Văn Commune, Pù Hoạt Nature Reserve, Vietnam. The collection was done in December 2018. Essential oils were distilled off using hydrodistillation method according to established procedure. The determination of antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils of H. suaveolens will be achieved by the method of microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 were evaluated accordingly.

Results: The major compounds in the oil were b-caryophyllene (31.1% and 33.7%), caryophyllene oxide (17.6% and 3.9%), phytol (9.9% and 2.7%) and a-humulene (6.7% and 6.6%), respectively. The leaf oil displayed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC299212, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 and Candida albicans ATCC10231 with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 16.0, 32.0 and 16.0 µg/mL respectively, while the IC50 values were 5.78, 9.35 and 6.78 µg/mL, respectively. The flower oil showed activity  towards the same organisms with MIC values of 64.0, 64.0 and 16.0 µg/mL, respectively;   with IC50 values of 20.45, 26.78 and 6.78 µg/mL, respectively. Both essential oils exhibited moderate activity towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 with MIC of 256.0 µg/mL.

Conclusion: The results are indication of the potential of H. suaveolens essential oils as source of antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Electrohomeopathic Medicinal Practice: Origin, Principles, Medicinal Plants Used and Its Current Status in India

P. Sureshbabu, E. Siddalingamurthy, N. L. Shashidhara, B. Sooryanarayanarao, D. C. Bhavya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 31-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i830257

Natural plant medicines have been used as remedies for various diseases since ages. Various medical systems have been established and practiced across the world, of which some are gained popularity and constitutional recognition while some are yet to find recognition in certain geographical areas. Electrohomeopathy is one such medical practice which is picking up on acceptance by the Indian population. The Electrohomeopathy or Electropathic system of medicine has a history of nearly 150 years of existence. In India, the system has been in practice for more than a century. This is a purely plant-based medical system, first started by C.C. Mattei of Italy during the 1850s. Extraction of electrals or phytoconstituents from different plants and recombining in appropriate proportions as per the requirement of the patient’s disease condition forms the core principle of the system. In this review article, we briefly touch upon the origin, historical evolution, and basic principle, list of plants used, types of remedies used and current status in India and also throws light on what the future holds for the Electrohomeopathy medicine and treatment.