Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using an Aqueous Root Extract of Iris germanica as a Reducing Agent and Its Antibacterial Efficacy

Vaghela Hiral, Shah Rahul, Vajapara Shailesh, Pathan Amanullakhan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730248

Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are environment friendly, cost-effective, bio-compatible and expanding research area due to their potential applications in medical domain. The present study focuses on biologically synthesized of AgNPs using aqueous root extract of  Iris germanica as reducing agent as well as capping agent and examined their potential antibacterial efficacy. In reduction reaction it was observed that silver (Ag+1) ions associate in root extract and reduced in solution (Ag0) leads to formation of stable formation of spherical AgNPs. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed an effective and rapid antibacterial activity against both bacterial strain (gram+ve and gram-ve). Results exhibited that AgNPs were extremely toxic towards Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli pathogenic bacterial strains and can be utilized for the applications in biomedical science.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Curcumin on the Invasion and Migration of Glioma Cells

Manar Zraikat, Munir Gharaibeh, Tasneem Alshelleh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730249

Aim: This study investigated the effect of curcumin, from Curcuma longa, on the invasion of U87 glioma cell line spheres in 3D collagen model. Furthermore, this study investigated the anti-migration effects of curcumin on the migration of the same cell line in scratch assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, between March 2019 and May 2019.

Methods: 3D invasion assay and 2D migration assays were used to fulfill these aims in addition to the Image J program that was used to analyze the area of invasion and the area of migration over the days of applying the assays.

Results: The results showed an inhibitory effect of curcumin in all samples tested on both the invasion and migration of U87 cell line.

Conclusion: This work adds more proofs on the importance of curcumin as anti-invasive and anti-migration agent and opens the door for more investigative studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety and Fertility Potential of Kenyan Grewia tenax (Mukawa Wa Guba) Root Extract Secondary Metabolites

Peter J. Kasyoki, Catherine K. Kaingu, Christine O. Wangia, Faraj O. Alkizim

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730250

Aim: To screen Kenyan Grewia tenax root extract phytochemicals and correlate the attribute fertility enhancing effects and safety in female albino rats.

Study Design: An experimental study design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The phytochemical studies were done at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Department of Botany Laboratory, while acute oral toxicity studies were done at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, University of Nairobi (UON) animal house. The study was done during the month of March to June 2019.

Methodology: Grewia tenax was harvested with the help of a plant taxonomist. The roots were chopped into small pieces and dried under shade for three weeks. They were then ground into powder. Organic extracts were prepared by sequential extraction (petroleum ether, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol), by use of cold maceration. Aqueous extracts were obtained by hot maceration. Phytochemical screening of extracts was done by standard phytochemical procedures. A total of 12 female albino rats were used in acute oral toxicity studies as per OECD 423 guidelines.

Results: Methanol extract had the highest composition of phytochemicals, i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, terpenes and cardiac glycosides. Aqueous and DCM extracts showed presence of alkaloids, saponins and cardiac glycosides, while petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed presence of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Steroids and tannins were absent in all extracts. Flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes are fertility enhancing compounds due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. Flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides improve fertility by inducing ovarian steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. In the acute oral toxicity study, there were no adverse effects at 5000 mg/kg extract administration.

Conclusion: Kenyan Grewia tenax root extract has phytochemicals postulated to enhance fertility and is orally safe. These findings may require further verification using in vivo studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-lipoxygenase and Membrane Stabilization Activity of Crude Extracts of Euphorbia lateriflora (Schum and Thonn)

Olasunkanmi Adedoyin A., Fadahunsi Olumide Samuel, Olorunnisola Olubukola Sinbad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730251

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the in-vitro anti-inflammatory potential of crude extracts of Euphorbia lateriflora

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Methodology: The in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of E. lateriflora were evaluated via anti-lipoxygenase and red cell membrane stabilization assays using spectrophotometric technique.

Results: The aqueous and ethanol extracts demonstrated significant anti-lipoxygenase activity with the aqueous extracts (IC50: 0.34 mg/ml) and the ethanol extracts (IC50: 0.25 mg/ml), showing comparable activity with standard indomethacin (0.27 mg/ml). Contrary to what was observed in the anti-lipoxygenase study, the aqueous extract demonstrated a better membrane stabilization activity with IC50 (1.13 mg/ml) than the ethanol extracts (5.44 mg/ml). The standard diclofenac drug had an IC50 of 1.02 mg/kg. Both the aqueous and the ethanol extracts demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity.

Conclusion: Observation from this study established the considerable anti-inflammatory potential of this plant by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and stabilization the membrane of the red blood cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mushroom Diversity of Dhenkanal District, Odisha, India: Source of Alternative Foods and Medicines

Yasaswinee Rout, Falguni Behera, Sanjeet Kumar, Malay Prithwiraj Sahoo, Rajkumari Supriya Devi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730252

Aims: The demand for nutraceutical and their products are increasing in modern era throughout the world. The prime sources of nutraceutical are floral & faunal wealth including microbial diversity. Among them, wild mushroom play a vital role and provide food for local communities which have medicinal values too. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been taken to enumerate the wild mushroom available in Dhenkanal district of Odisha state.

Place and Duration of Study: The survey was carried out in selected areas of Dhenkanal district of Odisha state in 2019 and species are photographed followed by identification using Flora’s book and available literature.

Results: Survey revealed that 60 species of wild mushrooms are recorded belonging to 33 genus and 25 families. It was observed that 10 species are edible and consumed by local communities rest are poisonous or bitter which could be used to isolate bioactive compounds to treat lethal disease.

Conclusion: The present study highlights the diversity of wild mushroom in Dhenkanal district of Odisha and their food & medicinal potentials for future nutraceuticals & pharmaceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts of Priva cordifolia (L.f.) Druce

Niranjan M. H., Prabhurajeshwar .

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 42-53
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730253

In current environment increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents and herbal drugs are being investigated as important sources for new agents for testing various diseases related to bacterial infections. The present work is aimed at exploring the preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem extracts of Priva cordifolia belongs to family Verbenaceae. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity was studied using various organisms by means of a disc diffusion method. Susceptibility of some Gram positive organisms (Bacillus substilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative organisms (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) were tested against leaf and stem extracts (water, methanol and ethanol). Among the various extracts, water stem extract was more effective (19.66±1.52 mm) and ethanol stem extract found to be less effective (1±1) against all the bacteria. It is concluded that the plant extract showed antimicrobial activity because of the presence of these phytochemicals. Further studies are recommended for drug development to treat various infectious diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Hypolipidemic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Wistar Rats

E. B. Umoren, J. F. Ekpenyong, O. E. Oyama, A. O. Obembe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i730254

Aim of the Study: This study was undertaken to ascertain if Hibiscus sabdariffa extract can affect the lipid profile (Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) levels in a paracetamol- induced hepatotoxicity using albino Wistar rat as a model.

Materials and Methods: Thirty (30) rats used for this study were divided into three groups. Group A (n=10) served as control. Group B (n=10) was administered paracetamol only at a dose of 750 mg/kg body weight. Group C (n=10) was administered paracetamol (dose 750 mg/kg body weight) and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (dose 10 ml/kg body weight) of the animal for 3 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water and normal rat chow.

Results: Results of the study revealed that TC was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the paracetamol + H. sabdariffa-treated group as compared to paracetamol-treated group and control respectively. Similar trend was observed with TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c and HDL-c. However, the decrease in HDL-c was not statistically significant when compared to control.

Conclusion: The presence of bioactive constituents vis; anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyvenols and free radical scavenging properties in H. sabdariffa enabled a hypolipidemic effect on the animals by lowering the levels of serum TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c despite challenge on the liver. However, it was unable to produce significant effect on HDL concentration -very important cholesterol required in high level to maintain homeostasis inside the body. This may be due to the challenge on the liver as a result of the paracetamol abuse.