Open Access Short communication

Techniques for the Cultivation of ‘Mamacadela’ (Brosimum Gaudichaudii Tréc.Moraceae) for the Extraction of Furanocoumarins from the Roots

Conceição Eneida dos Santos Silveira, Cláudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Dario Palhares, Íris Almeida dos Santos, Alfredo Luiz Rodrigues Pereira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630245

Brosimum gaudichaudii is a common plant of Cerrado, which is of pharmaceutical interest owing to the high accumulation of furanocoumarins in the bark of the roots. The production chain is based on extractivism, which exerts a considerable ecological pressure. In this paper, a technique for its cultivation under garden conditions has been presented. Seeds were made to germinate, and the seedlings were cultivated in 1, 45 m deep PVC tubes filled with Cerrado soil. After nine years, the plants started producing flowers and fruits. The concentration of furanocoumarins was considerably high in the cultivated plants. Five plants were sampled for morphological  description and chemical analysis. Root cuttings were obtained. After six months of observation, more than 70% of the cuttings had emitted shoots and leaves. The cultivation in PVC tubes is a suitable method for harvesting the roots, and it is easy to carry out vegetative propagation of this plant by root cuttings.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Cocoa against Ribitol-5-Phosphate 2-Dehydrogenase of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Pneumonia

Sunanya Das, Suchismita Khatei, Saismita Sahoo, Sitaram Swain, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630240

This analysis aims at evaluating the effects of Cocoa extract on Pneumonia. Pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Caffeine, Chorogenic acid, Ferulic acid, Iso- Orientin, luteolin, Naringenin and Vanillic acid of Cocoa were interacted with ribitol-5-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase which is involved in pentose and glucorunate interconversion pathways of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The enzyme was taken as receptor and phytochemicals were considered as ligands. All the interactions were done in Biovia discovery Studio 2020 and the process is known as molecular Docking. Molecular Docking provides us an opportunity to identify the potential phytochemical or component which can act as powerful tool against the pathogen. Out of all the phytochemicals, Luteolin of Cocoa inhibits or blocks the mechanism or action of ribitol-5-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase enzyme of Streptococcus pneumoniae. There is high possibility that these phytochemicals can potentially inhibit others enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and in vivo Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from the Root of Curcuma longa Linn

Abdulrashid Mohammed, Muhammad Ibrahim Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Wudil, Adamu Jibrin Alhassan, Salisu Maiwada Abubakar, Ngwen Anthony Lat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630241

Many plants possess antioxidants that exhibit additive or synergistic activities. The antioxidant activities of the root of Curcuma longa Linn extracts extracted different solvents were investigated by using several established in vitro systems: α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydrogen Peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NOSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The result showed that methanol extract exhibited greater antioxidant activity in vitro which was statistically significant compared to the other extracts. Based on the in vitro results, the methanol extract was subjected to column chromatography. Six pooled fractions (FI-FVI) were evaluated for in vivo antioxidant activity in liver and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats using a total of forty-five (45) rats which were grouped into nine (9) groups of five (5) rats. The in vivo antioxidants showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) levels in both liver and kidney of Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These changes were significantly reversed after treatment with methanol fraction II and the standard drug. Thus, Curcuma longa Linn may be useful in the management of diabetes and oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viability and Vigor in Jackfruit Seed (Artocarpusheterophyllus) Subjected to Different Substrates

Igor Eduardo Martins Borges, Indira Rayane Pires Cardeal, Jennifer Monique Martins de Abreu, Daniella Inácio Barros, Helber Veras Nunes, Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes, Evandro Alves Ribeiro, Juliana Lopes dos Santos, Liomar Borges de Oliveira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 13-17
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630243

The use of substrates is a good option and should present some important characteristics, such as availability of acquisition and transportation, absence of pathogens, richness in essential nutrients, suitable pH, texture and structure. However, each species exhibits different behavior on the same substrate, it is necessary to scientifically verify which substrate or combination of these allows obtaining seedlings with higher physiological quality. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Tocantins Science, and Technology, Gurupi/TO. Jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were used, directly removed from the fruits that were collected in the same period. The highest root length value was obtained when the seeds were sown in the substrates: BS (13.9 cm), HW + WS + BS (14.6 cm), PP + Sawdust + BS (13.8 cm) and CS (17 cm), intermediate value on the WS substrate (11.9 cm) and low on CS + BM + WS (6.6 cm). It was also observed that the highest length value of shoot was obtained in BS substrates (20.7 cm), HW + WS + BS (18.2 cm), PP + Sawdust + BS (16,5 cm) CS (16.4 cm) and low on the WS substrates (12.9 cm) and CS + BM + WS (7.2 cm). Regarding the first emergency count and emergence of seedlings, depending on the different substrates, once again stood out the BS substrates (65% and 85%) and CS (68.3% and 98.3%). The CS provided the highest values of viability and vigor in jackfruit seeds, followed by the Substrate BS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Malachite Green Dye by Teak Wood Waste Biomass Activated Carbon and Its Antimicrobial Activity

G. Vijayalakshmi, S. Sivajiganesan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630244

Adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) on activated carbon obtained from Teak wood biomass has been investigated by batch adsorption method. The percentage removal of dye has been optimized by studying the initial concentration of the dye, adsorbent dosage, adsorption time and pH. The experimental data were found to be well fitted to Langmuir isotherm. The present study indicates that activated carbon obtained from Teak wood biomass is an effective adsorbent of MG dye. The prepared activated carbon was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger), using disc diffusion method and compared with standard antibacterial (Nitrofurantoin) and antifungal (Amphotericin B). Bacteria showing more activity than fungal strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Analysis and in Vitro Antiproliferative Potential of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae)

Denise Bianchin Gomes, Barbara Zanchet, Patrícia Zanotelli Serpa, Gelvani Locateli, Daniela Miorando, Amanda Maria Steffler, Maria Eduarda de Costa Zanatta, Ana Júlia Predebon, Camila Sans Carteri, Junir Lutinski, Ana Lúcia Tasca Góis Ruiz, Maria de Fátima da Costa Santos, Andersson Barison, Walter Antônio Roman Junior

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630246

Natural products and especially medicinal plants, have been extensively studied and have exhibited antiproliferative effects. The species Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is native to Brazil and distributed throughout Australia, East Asia, and the Americas. The leaves are commonly used for the treatment of diarrhea, fever, and hypertension. However, the chemical properties and antiproliferative potential of the extracts remain to be elucidated. In this work, the antiproliferative effects of hydroethanolic (HEE) and dichloromethane (DEE) extracts of leaves from E. uniflora against a panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro were evaluated. Quercetin was identified using an HPLC, and the chemical component β-sitosterol was isolated. The HEE was an inactive extract, whereas the DEE extract showed antiproliferative activity against OVCAR-3 ovarian cells. In a bioassay-guided process, more pronounced antiproliferative effects were found for β-sitosterol isolated from DEE, which demonstrated potent antiproliferative effects against glioblastoma (U-251 cells) and leukemia (K-562 cells). This study contributes to the knowledge of E. uniflora and suggests that β-sitosterol is a potential chemotherapeutic compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obtaining Java Plum Seedlings (Syzygium cumini) through Different Seed Extraction and Cleaning Methods

Breno Alves Rodrigues, Maryana Silva Zielinski, Lucas Eduardo Morais Brito, Daniella Inácio Barros, Helber Veras Nunes, Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes, Hingrid Rodrigues Martins Aguiar, Evandro Alves Ribeiro, Paulo Victor Gomes Sales, Ricardo Alencar Liborio

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i630247

Java plum (Syzygium cumini) belonging to the botanical family Myrtaceae, which also includes species of other tropical fruits widely consumed in Brazil, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.) and surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.). The production of quality seedlings depends on several factors, including the method of extraction and cleaning the seed for planting. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Tocantins, Gurupi/TO city, from October 2018 to May 2019. The extraction methods used were: manual with friction on wire mesh; manual with the addition of sand and friction on wire mesh; manual with friction on a plastic sieve; fermentation at room temperature for three days; immersion in quicklime (CaO) solution for 24 and 48 hours; fermentation at room temperature with the addition of 5 pieces of sugar to 3 pieces of water, for 24, 48 and 72 hours; fermentation at room temperature, with the addition of 5 pieces of sugar to 1 of water, for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The following characteristics were evaluated: Root length, green mass of the aerial part, dry mass of the aerial part and root, first count of emergence and seedling emergence. All seeds were manually extracted and then submitted to different extraction methods. The best results were for the seeds that were applied to extraction by friction in plastic mesh, were soon immersed in quicklime solution for 24 hours and fermented at room temperature. The solutions that presented the best results were the solution with 5 proportions of water and 3 of sugar exposed during 24 hours (5:3) and also 5 proportions of water for only 1 sugar for 72 hours. These are the best treatments for the values of viability and vigor in Java plum seeds.