Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Utilization and Phytochemical Composition of Baobab Tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

A. I. Sodimu, M. B. Usman, J. Appah, O. Osunsina, R. A. Suleiman, S. Maikano, L. G. Lapkat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530233

Medicinal utilization and phytochemical composition of Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State was studied. Twenty (20) questionnaires were randomly administered in each of the six (6) districts to make a total of one hundred and twenty questionnaires (120). Ninety (90) were retrieved. The result revealed that the plant parts (leaves; stem; bark and seed) can be used in treatment and prevention of various diseases such as tuberculosis; anemia; malaria; dysentery; diarrhea; joint pains; serves as anti-diabetic; fever; urinary infection e t c. Infusion is the major (43.33%) method of herbal preparation. Parts of the plants species used in preparing the herbs include: the leaves; bark; root; seeds and fruits. Majority of the herbal are consumed in a dried form. Demographic characteristic of the respondents were also examined. The percentage of Male was (43.34%) while that of their female counter part was (56.66%). Majority (43.33%) of the respondents were between 31 – 40 years age bracket and majority (44.44%) are married with majority (37.78%) having 1-5 house hold size. 45.56% of the respondents had secondary education while 2.22% had no formal education and majority (51.11%) are traditional healers. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins; alkaloids flavonoids; terpenoids; saponins and phenolic acid in various concentrations as there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between these phytochemicals and their plants parts. The presence of varied active ingredients in the different parts of these plants explains their diverse use in the treatment of different disease conditions. However, it is recommended that due to the increased interest in baobab products (especially on its medical utilization) and slow growth of the plant research should be directed on how to develop a new cultivar with short maturation period. Also, the local population particularly the youth should be educated and also encouraged to learn more about the tradition medicine knowledge in order to preserve it from being lost with the old genera.            

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Glycyrrhiza glabra against Conjunctivitis

Shibani Sahoo, Swetanginee Gouda, Sunanya Das, Mukundjee Pandey, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530236

Phytochemicals are naturally occurring biologically active compounds found in plant parts such as roots, barks, leaves, seeds, and even pulps. It has been reported that Glycyrrhiza glabra plant extract is used for treatment of the disease conjunctivitis. The plant extract contains different phytochemicals. The agent that causes conjunctivitis is a gram positive bacterium which belongs to species Staphylococcus. One of the key enzymes involved in its biochemical pathway is Isocitrate dehydrogenase. The molecular docking of the phytochemicals with the enzyme was studied using Biovia Discovery Studio. The strength of the interaction was evaluated based on -CDocker energy and -CDocker interaction energy. High positive values for both the parameters indicated that out of different phytochemicals rosmarinic acid can effectively deactivate the is ocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby inhibiting the life cycle of Staphylococcus.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Coconut against Candidiasis

Sunanya Das, Sushree Saraswati Nayak, Sitaram Swain, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530237

This in sillico analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of Coconut extract on Candidiasis. Candidiasis is caused by Candidia tropicalis. The phytochemicals of Coconut were interacted with a 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase enzyme involved in Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid metabolic pathway of Candidia tropicalis. The enzyme was taken as receptor and phytochemicals were considered as ligands. All the interactions were done in Biovia discovery Studio 2020 and the process is known as molecular Docking. Molecular Docking provides us an opportunity to identify the potential phytochemical or component which can act as powerful tool against the pathogen. Out of all the phytochemicals, Folic Acid of Coconut inhibits or blocks the mechanism of action of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase enzyme of Candidia tropicalis. There is high possibility that these phytochemicals can potentially inhibit others enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways of Candidia tropicalis.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Neem Leaves against Sterol 14-alpha Demethylase of Microsporum sp Causing Skin Disease

Sunanya Das, Rama Kanta Sahoo, Prateet Banajyotshna Sahoo, K. V. D. Prakash, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530238

This analysis aims at evaluating the effects of Neem leaves extract on Skin disease. Skin disease is caused by Microsporum sp. The phytochemicals of Neem leaves were interacted with sterol 14-alpha demethylase enzyme involved in sterol biosynthesis metabolic pathway of Microsporum sp. Sterol 14-alpha demethylase was taken as receptor and phytochemicals present in Neem leaves were considered as ligands. All the interactions were done in Biovia discovery Studio 2020 and the process is known as molecular Docking. Molecular Docking provides us an opportunity to identify the potential phytochemical or component which can act as powerful tool against the pathogen. Out of all the phytochemicals, Glutamic acid and Oleic Acid of Neem leaves inhibits or blocks the mechanism or action of sterol 14-alpha demethylase enzyme of Microsporum sp. There is high possibility that these phytochemicals can potentially inhibit others enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways of Microsporum sp.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Clove against Bronchitis

Sonupriya Sahu, Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Sitaram Swain, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530239

Bronchitis is an airborne disease, mostly caused by bacteria like Mycoplasma pneumonia and also by influenza virus. Due to hyper secretion and over production of mucus by goblet cells which leads to obstractle in airflow. This disease can be cured using (Syzygium aromaticum) clove extracts. Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites which are basically non-nutritive compounds but can protect from various diseases caused by microorganism. Bioactive compounds like Acetyl eugenol, Beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, eugenin tannins, gallotannic acid, mrthyl salicylate (painkiller), flavonoids, kaempferol, rhamnetin, eugenitin, triterpenoid like oleanolic acid are found in clove extract. The enzyme and the phytochemicals were run using Biovia Discovery Studio and molecular docking was performed. By the help of -CDocker energy and -CDocker interaction energy the strength of the interaction was evaluated. The key enzyme involved in the biochemical pathway of mycoplasma pneumonia is Thymidine phosphorylase. High positive values for both the parameters indicated that out of different phytochemicals, Myricetin can interrupt the life cycle of Mycoplasma pneumonia spp.  Effectively by deactivating the enzyme Thymidine phosphorylase (Pdb no 4LHM). The present study is to evaluate the action of phytochemicals present in clove (against brochitis diseases).

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Andrographolide in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Huntington Disease and Associated Neurodegenerative Changes in Rats

Guneet Bhatia, Abhitinder Kumar, Narinder Kaur, Wasi Uzzaman Khan, Masih Uzzaman Khan, Ravi Kumar Dhawan, Nitish Bhatia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 40-52
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530235

Aims: Oxidative stress and activation of pro-apoptotic mediators have been associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a well-known antioxidant and inhibitor of pro-apoptotic mediator, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB).

Study Design: The present study was hence designed to evaluate the effect of ANDRO in Huntington’s disease.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, India between March 2018 and July 2018.

Methodology: Five groups (n=6) of Sprague dawley rats were used. Normal group animals were kept untreated. The control group was administered 3-Nitro propionic acid (3-NP) for seven days. The three treament groups received 3-NP followed by ANDRO intraperitoneally for seven days. On 8th day, behavioral and coordination parameters were evaluated using multiple tests. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant enzyme levels in brain tissue were also evaluated. Brain tissues were also evaluated using Haematoxylin-eosin staining.

Results: Administration of 3-NP resulted in motor incoordination and muscle weakness as indicated by behavioral tests. Biochemically, there was an increase in the oxidative stress and depletion of free radical scavenging. Histopathologically, there was severe neuronal degeneration and neural tissue apoptotic changes in the rat striatum. ANDRO administration resulted in significant decrease in the muscle incoordination in the behavioral tests and also decreased prooxidative biochemical changes. Brain tissues of the ANDRO treated animals showed protection against neuronal damage and neurodegeneration.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the use of ANDRO may afford protection against Huntington’s disease associated muscle incoordination and subsequent neurodegeneration. Present study provides a lead for further investigation of role of NF-kB inhibitors in Huntington’s disease and possible development of low-cost natural medication.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Ethnomedicinal Claims and Spread of Pothos scandens L.

Niral H. Sojeetra, Rabinarayan Acharya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i530234

Aim: Present review aims to collect all available ethno medicinal information and research updates on Pothos scandens, a popular drug among the local healers for its multipurpose traditional therapeutic claims.

Materials and Methods: Reported ethno medicinal uses of Pothos scandens from available books related to medicinal plants and research articles on ethno medicine, published till January 2020, were reviewed. Name of the reporting tribe using the plant and their place of reporting, vernacular names, parts used along with its therapeutic indications, with specific method of administration, if any,  through either external or internal usages were noted.

Results: P. scandens is reported for its presence in 13 countries across the globe and in 13 states of India. The plant as a whole or its stem, root and leaf are used in 31 different disease conditions, either through internal administration or external applications. Among these, maximum are indicated in the treatment of asthma, small pox, wounds and bone fracture etc. Its leaves have maximum applications in 11 disease conditions, followed by whole plant in 10, stem in 3 and root in one disease condition. Its leaves are also used as fodder. Pharmacological studies report its anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, wound healing activities.

Conclusion: Pothos scandens is having multifaceted ethno-medicinal claims and needs robust scientific evaluation through pharmacological and clinical studies to establish the ethnic claims.