Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Quercetin-3-O-(2”-α-Methyl-p-Coumaryl)-Rutinoside from Delonix elata Flowers

A. Rajeshkanna, M. M. Senthamilselvi, D. Prabhakaran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430224

Aims: To investigate the isolated flavonoid compound, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Quercetin-3-O-(2”-α-methyl-p-Coumaryl)-rutinoside from Delonix elata flowers.

Place and Duration of Study: The research work was carried out at Research laboratory, Department of chemistry, Periyar E.V.R College, Trichy-23, between May 2016 to January 2018.

Methodology: Extraction and fractionation was carried out from the solvents of ethanol, benzene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The structure of the isolated compound (Quercetin-3-O-(2”-α-methyl-p-Coumaryl)-rutinoside) was elucidated through their physical and chemical methods. The isolated compound was characterized by using various spectral data such as UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS. Four bacterial strains Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and two fungal strains Curvularia lunata and Candida albicans were tested by using disc diffusion method.

Conclusion: The present study was concluded that the dry sample of ethyl acetate fraction of Delonix elata flowers was Quercetin-3-O-(2”-α-methyl-p-Coumaryl)-rutinoside and it possesses effective antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-diabetic and Antioxidant Efficacy of Methanolic Extract of Canthium coromandelicum Leaves

S. Thiripura Salini, S. Shankar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430225

Oxidative stress plays a major role in diabetic complications. The study aim was to investigate the in-vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Canthium coromandelicum leaves. The plant material was extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The efficiency of the antidiabetic activity of the plant extract was evaluated against α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. The study revealed that the C. coromandelicum extract exhibited significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with an IC50 value of 31.52 ± 0.42 and 41.49 ± 0.28 µg/mL respectively and compared with standard acarbose drug. The extract efficiently scavenging DPPH radical with IC50 values of 65.46 ± 0.50 µg/ml. Therefore, the extract could be a promising therapeutic in management of diabetic complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Phytochemicals from Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Causing Tuberculosis

Debasmita Das, Sunanya Das, Mukundjee Pandey, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430226

Tuberculosis is somewhat a disease of poverty that mainly targets the low-income populations of developing countries. At the same time, the disease act as a barrier for economic growth to affected people and families caring for them which in turn results into increased poverty in the community. Thesepopulation below the poverty line lacks access due to higher retail price and unavailability of the medicines. To overcome these obstacles researchers are nowadays opting to derive medicines from plant extract containing phytochemicals rather than synthesizing new chemicals which proved to be more expensive and unsafe compared to their organic counterpart. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive compounds obtained from plants. It has been reported that Mucuna pruriens plant extract is expected to cure Tuberculosis, which is caused by  Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The said microbe contains 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme which is reported to be very crucial for the survival of the organism. The molecular docking of the phytochemicals with the microbial enzyme was studied using Biovia Discovery Studio. The machine learning protocols analyze and predict the volume of the molecular interactions occurring between the plant phytochemical and the bacterial enzyme occurring at the active site of the enzyme. The strength of the interaction was evaluated based on -CDocker energy and -CDocker interaction energy. Subsequently the study displays high positive values for both the parameters indicating that out of different phytochemicals present in Mucuna pruriens, L-Dopa can effectively deactivate the enzymatic metabolic activity by interrupting β-oxidation of fatty acid in the microbial cell which causes termination of the life cycle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Glomus fasciculatum On Nutrient Uptake and Growth of a Medicinal Plant, Coleus forskohlii

Selima Khatun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430227

Aims: Coleus forskohlii Briq. (syn. Coleus barbatus Benth.) belonging to the family Lamiaceae is a well known plant throughout the country and known as ‘pashanbhedi’ in Sanskrit and ‘pathatchur’ in Hindi is one of the most potential medicinal plants of the future, as its pharmacoproperties have been discovered only recently. Its tuberous roots are found to be rich source of forskolin which is being used as a remedy for hypertension, glaucoma, asthma, congestive heart failures and certain types of cancers and also being use as vegetables. In addition, forskolin is reported to have used in the preparation of medicines for controlling body weight, preventing hair greying and restoring normal colour of grey hairs. Its foliage is also employed in treating intestinal disorders and used as a condiment since a long time. Keeping the above views in mind, the present investigation was undertaken to study the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, G. fasciculatum on phosphorus uptake and growth of Coleus forskohlii.

Study Design: Various tests or experiments were done in this study. Total leaf tissue phosphorus content was determined following the Microkjeldhal method of Jackson (1973) and chlorophyll estimation was done following the method of Mahadevan and Sridhar (1982) .Root colonization of C. forskohlii by G. fasciculatum was observed by the ‘Rapid clearing and staining technique’ (Phillips & Hayman, 1970). Forskolin content in C. forskohlii tubers was estimated by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Botany, Burdwan University. A soil culture of Glomus fasciculatum was propagated as endomycorrhizal species in Zea mays as suitable host in pot culture using sterile sand and soil (pH 5.6; organic carbon 0.6%, P content 45 ppm) in 1:1 ratio. 400 gm of rhizosphere soil with AM-inoculated root fragments of Zea mays was introduced in the dry, loamy, fine-textured soil (pH 5.8; organic carbon 0.6%, P content 45 ppm, total nitrogen 0.03%) of pot culture (2.0 kg of soil per pot) at a depth of 2 inches below the Coleus cutting (12-16 cm long comprising 3-4 pairs of leaves) being planted, between June 2011 and July 2012.

Results: Responses of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus fasciculatum on phosphorus uptake by the plant at different developmental phases have been studied. The result indicates that symbiotic association of mycorrhizal fungus amounts to greater uptake of phosphorus and increased chlorophyll content in AM treated plants than in non mycorrhizal plants which gradually happened to be maintained throughout their developmental stages. Different growth parameters like plant height, root length, no. of roots, no. of leaves, no. of branches, fresh weight of shoot, roots, tubers and forskolin content were significantly higher in AM treated plants than in respective controls.

Conclusion: The better growth of mycorrhizal plants was attributed to improved nutrient uptake, especially phosphorus. The result suggested that G. fasciculatum is one of the most potentially effective bio-fertilizer of Coleus forskohlii.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-cancer Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana in Cervical Cancer Cell Line

H. Sheeba, M. Syed Ali, V. Anuradha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430230

Aim: The fungal crude extract of Trichoderma viride isolated from the medicinal plant of Ziziphus mauritiana was investigated for anti-cancer activity against HeLa cell line.

Place and Duration of Study: The entire research work was done in the Department of Biotechnology, Mohammed Sathak College of Arts and Science, Chennai, India and Stellixir Biotech Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, Karnataka, between April 2019 to June 2019.

Methodology: In MTT assay, cells were seeded in 96 well plates with concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 μl/ml of fungal bioactive compound and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm. Apoptosis was carried out via flow cytometry using control Camptothecin and fungal extract concentration. Subsequently, cell cycle arrest was determined by 400 μl PI/RNAse staining buffer and further analyzed using PI solutions by flow cytometry. Finally, the damage of the nucleus observed under a Fluorescent microscope using DAPI staining.

Results: MTT assay revealed an obtained fungal compound showed IC50 concentration against the HeLa cells at 23.57 μg/ml. Apoptosis analysis suggested under the M1 population the viable cells are low in mean Annexin V-FITC while M2 is the apoptotic cells have taken up the Annexin V-FITC and high in mean Annexin V-FITC fluorescence intensity. The cell cycle arrest has been noted by decreasing the percentage of arrest in the G0/G1 phase and increased in S and G2/M phase compared to controls. In the course of DAPI staining, it has been understood that IC50 23.57 μg/ml has an efficient nuclear dent after the treatment.

Conclusion: In-vitro studies revealed that Trichoderma viride has promising cytotoxicity effect against the HeLa cell line. Hence the bioactive compounds of 3-beta-hydroxy urs-12-en-28-oic acid which is responsible for the treatment of cervical cancer. However in-vivo experiments need to be conceded out for further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 5 Enzyme by Pterine- 6 Carboxylic Acid from Baphia nitida –Related to Erectile Dysfunction: Computational Kinetic

Wopara, Iheanyichukwu, S. K. Mobisson, Egelege Aziemeola Pius, A. A. Uwakwe, M. O. Wegwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 49-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430231

Treatment of erectile dysfunction is associated with inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme. This study deals with the evaluation of Pterin-6-carboxylic acid inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase 5 (PDB ID: 4OEW) using in silico docking studies. Pterin-6-carboxylic acid from Baphia nitida was isolated using GC-MS and docked into PDE5 active site. The docking result showed that pterin-6-carboxylic acid bind to the active site of phosphodiesterase 5 with the binding energy value of -7.1 and 2.05A° - 2.23A° when compared with other compound found in the plant. Moreso, docking analysis with the ligand identified specific residues such as: Ile 778, Phe 820, Gln 817, Ser 815 and Gln 775 within the binding pocket which played an important role in the ligand binding affinity to the protein. Result from our In silico studies hypothesized that pterin-6-carboxylic acid can be an inhibitory agent for PDE5 protein which could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Characterisation and Antibacterial Activity of Propolis on Cariogenic Microrganisms

Ashu Michael Agbor, Raissa Tsague, Bruno Kaptue, Sudeshni Naidoo, Estella Tembe-Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang, Charles Pilipili

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 56-66
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i430232

Background: Dental caries is also known as tooth decay is as a result of the softening of hard dental tissues from factors of multiple origins, with dental plaque bacteria being one of the most important factors. Due to the resistance of microorganisms to common antibiotics, modern medical sciences had been looking for new approaches in the treatment and prevention of oral diseases. 

Objective: This study aimed to phytochemically characterise, evaluate the antibacterial activity of propolis on bacteria responsible for dental caries.

Methodology: This was an experimental study that took place in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Microbiology (Clinque Universities des Montagne (CUM)) of Bangangté between January to April 2018.

Chemical screening of the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts revealed the presence of  secondary metabolites namely alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, saponins and terpenes, those being more abundant in the aqueous extract. The content of flavonoids was high. Macro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of propolis and  Müller Hinton agar was used for obtaining the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and determination of inhibition diameters of the bacteria.

Results: The flavonoid content in the aqueous extract was estimated at 222.85 mg/ml and 18.77 mg/ml for the hydroalcoholic extracts. S mutans and Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from samples collected from caries affected teeth. The aqueous extract of propolis generally generates greater inhibition diameters than that of the hydroalcoholic extract on both lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans, The MBC of the aqueous extract on S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. was 50 mg/ml and the MIC was 25 mg/ml. The hydroalcoholic extract did not have MBC on both S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. However, the MIC of this extract on both bacteria was 50 mg/ml. These antibacterial properties were not statically significant as that of gentamicin.

Conclusion: The evaluation of the antibacterial activity of our various extracts by determination of the MIC and MBC revealed that propolis was endowed with inhibitory properties vis-à-vis the growth of most bacterial strains tested: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. all 2 being gram-positive bacteria.