Open Access Minireview Article

Medicinal and Nutritional Perspective of Cinnamon: A Mini-review

Bharti Goel, Sunidhi Mishra

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330218

The present review establishes the medicinal and nutritional perspectives of Cinnamon. In today’s era, there are so many processed foods available in the market that saves time but processed foods have many adverse effects on health. Cinnamon has significant benefits for human health, particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-hypertriglyceridemia agent, mainly due to its phytochemical constituents such as phenolic and volatile compounds. So, people are more aware of the usage of the natural herbal product in the diet. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is the most consumed spice in the world. Cinnamaldehyde is the bioactive component present in the cinnamon. The nutrient content found in cinnamon is in a good amount. Macro and micronutrients such as energy, carbohydrate, vitamin A and C, calcium, iron, magnesium are present. Cinnamon is also known for its health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, immunomodulatory and metabolic syndrome. Thus, cinnamon is very beneficial to combat diseases. It is concluded that cinnamon is very useful and beneficial for the maintenance of health and it is helpful in the prevention of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Propagation of Aloysia citriodora Palau Using Different Cutting Types under Light Intensity

Orivaldo Benedito da Silva, Ademir Goelzer, Cleberton Correia Santos, Elissandra Pacito Torales, Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate, Maria do Carmo Vieira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330217

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of types of cuttings and light intensity on cidró vegetative propagation.

Place and Duration of Study: Medicinal Plants Garden, Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, September to November 2016.

Methodology: The experiment was carried out under two light conditions (shaded and full light), evaluating three types of cuttings (softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood). Experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications.

Results: Hardwood cuttings showed the highest survival rates (86% and 82%), regardless of light. Highest fresh weight (0.6062 g plant-1) and dry mass (0.2987 g plant-1) with a leaf of 44.57 cm2 were from hardwood cuttings, regardless of the light, while the longest root length were those of softwood cuttings under full light. Physiological indices varied as a function of light intensity, The highest values of leaf area ratio (46.11 cm2 g-1) and specific leaf mass (0.0037 g cm-2) occurred in cuttings under full light.

Conclusion: The vegetative propagation of cidró can be carried out using the hardwood portion of the cutting branch, under full light.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Studies of Some Hemi-parasitic West African Plants

A. O. Oriola, A. J. Aladesanmi, E. O. Akinkunmi, I. J. Olawuni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330219

The study investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some West African hemi-parasitic plants, which comprised Tapinanthus bangwensis (TB), Tapinanthus globiferus (TG) and Globimetula braunii (GB), used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for the management of skin and other microbial infections. This was with a view to determining the most active plant extract and fraction. The leaf and stem of each plant was separately air-dried, powdered and macerated in ethanol-H20 (8:2). The extracts were subjected to in vitro antioxidant tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Fe2+ chelating ability (FIC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays, with L-ascorbic acid, quercetin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as positive controls. The antimicrobial test was carried out using micro-broth dilution method against reference strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, where ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole were the positive controls. An activity-guided fractionation approach was adopted in the study. The most active GB leaf extract was fractionated to obtain n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions, and were subsequently tested. The results showed that the extract of GB leaf demonstrated the highest bioactivities with inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DPPH at 31.21±1.11 µg/mL, FRAP value of 109.30±0.76 mg AAE/g, TAC value of 178.15±3.54 mg AAE/g and MIC of 5.0 – 10.0 mg/mL. The Ethylacetate fraction of GB leaf demonstrated the highest bioactivities, which were four-times, thrice and twice better than its GB leaf extract in the DPPH, TAC and antimicrobial studies respectively. The EtOAc fraction (IC50 = 8.58±1.39 µg/mL) was comparable (P > 0.05) in antioxidant activity with quercetin (IC50 = 7.72±0.88 µg/mL). The EtOAc fraction also exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/mL against MRSA and C. albicans. In conclusion, the extract of G. braunii leaf demonstrated considerable bioactivities and the moderately polar EtOAc fraction was the most active fraction; hence, validates the folkloric use G. braunii leaf as a remedy for microbial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Profile and Investigation of the Spasmolytic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Seeds

F. S. Monteiro, A. F. S. Carvalho, R. M. Ribeiro, A. C. R. Borges, M. O. R. Borges

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 27-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330220

Aims: Perform the phytochemical analysis and investigate the spasmolytic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from S. cumini seeds (EHS-SC).

Study Design: Qualitative phytochemical analysis and test of the EHS-SC on isolated smooth muscles (aorta, trachea, jejunum and uterus) of rat, to value effect relaxant and/or inhibitor.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacognosy Laboratory II (Pharmacy course) and Pharmacology Research and Post-Graduate Laboratory (Department of Physiological Sciences) of the Federal University of Maranhão, between January 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: EHS-SC was submitted to phytochemical analysis and changes in color, fluorescence and absence or presence of precipitate were observed. The smooth muscle segments were suspended (tension of 1 g) in glass vats containing specific saline solution, at an appropriate temperature and after stabilization period, was stimulated by a suitable contractile agent to observe the effect of EHS-SC in the phasic and/or tonic component.

Results: EHS-SC showed the majority presence of phenols, steroids, alkaloids and flavonoids (flavones, xanthones, flavonols) and was more potent in inhibiting phasic contractions induced by 10-6 M carbachol (CCh) in isolated rat jejunum (Emax: 83.5 ± 6.7%; n = 3). In addition, the EHS-SC (81.0; 243.0 and 729 µg/mL) antagonized the CCh effect (n = 4), increasing the EC50 (6.5 ± 1.3 x 10-7 M) of the CCh to 8.5 ± 1.1; 18.5 ± 3.4 and 40.5 ± 7.4 x 10-7 M and reducing the Emax (100%) of the CCh to 82.9 ± 10.5; 67.6 ± 6.0 and 10.1 ± 8.3%.

Conclusion: Spasmolytic activity may be combined with antimicrobial and antidiarrheal activity according to literature data, where they show that the seeds have the same secondary metabolites, signaling the therapeutic potential for the treatment of colic and/or diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ethnobotanical Survey, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Extracts of Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub

Bance Alimata, Magnini René Dofini, Compaore Souleymane, Compaore Eli, Ouedraogo Noufou, Sourabie D. Seydou, Millogo/Kone Hassanata, Kiendrebeogo Martin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330221

Aims: To investigate the ethnomedicinal uses of Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub and to screen the antimicrobial property as well as determine the phytochemical constituents of leaves, stems and root bark.

Study Design: Ethnobotanical surveys, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of P. africana.

Place and Duration of Study: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted during June 2015 in Zounweogo Province. The experiments were conducted at the Department of Medicine and Traditional Pharmacopeia-Pharmacy (MEPHATRA-PH) of the Institute of Research in Health and Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Chemistry (LA.BIO.C.A), University Joseph KI-ZERBO.

Methodology: The semi-structured questionnaires were administrated to 36 traditional healers and elucidated out on the ethnomedicinal uses of P. africana in treating bacterial infections, the plant parts used and the mode of administration. The antimicrobial activity of different polar extracts of the leaves, the stem and root were evaluated by using the agar diffusion method and the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts via microdilution method. The phytochemical constituents of all extracts were also screened air Ciulei method.

Results: The traditional healers consisted of 64% women and 36% men were surveyed.                 P. africana is used to treat tooth decay, childhood diarrhoea and chronic wounds. Leaves and the stem bark are the most commonly used plant part in treating bacterial infections while the roots are primarily used for other therapeutic purposes. The main method of administration was decoction. Methanol extracts of the leaves showed better antibacterial activity on all bacterial strains than aqueous extracts: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC = 390 µg/ml; diameter of inhibition = 13.00 ±1.00 mm), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (MIC = 390 µg/ml; diameter of inhibition = 12.33 ± 1.53 mm), Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 (MIC = 3120 µg/ml; diameter of inhibition = 13±1,00 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (MIC = 12500 µg/ml; diameter of inhibition = 12.33±0.58 mm). Alkaloid salts, tannins, sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, flavonic glycosides and leucoanthocyans were found in extracts of the leaves, as well as in the barks of the stem and root.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that P. africana is a potent source of antimicrobial compounds and could justify its traditional use of in the folklore medicine of Zounweogo Province.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Heavy Metal Ion Adsorption, Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities of Sawdust Chitosan Activated Carbon

K. Kayalvizhi, N. M. I. Alhaji, D. Saravanakkumar, A. Ayeshamariam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 56-69
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330223

Sawdust-Chitosan Composite beads (SDCCB), a low-cost non-conventional surface modified activated carbon, has been used for the efficient removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Surface morphology of the sample has been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDAX and FTIR analyses. Batch experiments have been conducted spectrophotometrically in order to determine the maximum adsorption capacity and influence of physicochemical parameters. The experimental data has been fitted with various isotherm and kinetic models to predict the conditions for maximum adsorption. The activation parameters evaluated for this adsorption process propose the adsorption mechanism as feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness. Also, the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of SDCCB have been screened by disk diffusion method and MTT assay, respectively.

Open Access Review Article

Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Pittosporum floribundum Wight. & Arn. – A Review

Kishangiri Kirtigiri Gunsai, Abhay Jayprakash Gandhi, Rabinarayan Acharya, V. J. Shukla

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i330222

Objectives: Pittosporum floribundum Wight & Arn. (Pittosporaceae) has been associated with many therapeutic claims, especially for its ethnomedicinal and economical uses. In this review, an extensive literature survey was carried out to compile information available about its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical uses of P. floribundum reported in available books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicinal research articles have been compiled. The obtained data are arranged in a tabular form, enlisting its local names, their area of presence and parts used. Therapeutic indications, external or internal dosage form and usage of the drug are also noted.

Results and Discussion: It was found that stem bark, leaves, and root of P. floribundum are used to combat itching, rheumatism, leprosy, sprain, eczema, arthritis, diabetes, chest pain and antidote for snake bite. Bark has maximum applications in leprosy, and sprain. The extracts of the different parts were subjected to phytochemical screening for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, lignins, anthroquinones, steroids, tannins, saponins, fixed oils and glycosides. Studies have shown that the methanolic extract of bark having promising antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuropharmacological and behaviour activities.

Conclusion: P. floribundum has multifaceted uses in varied aspects thus underlining its significance. Reported claimed anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities can be further strengthened through pharmacological and clinical studies to establish the ethnic claims like leprosy, sprain, bruises, sciatica, pulmonary affection and phthisis.