Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical Content, Antibacterial Properties and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Andrographis echioidies (L) Nees

Debasish Singha Roy, Subhasish Maity, Writtik Maity, Somnath De, Dulal Chandra Das

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130199

Background: There is much investigation with the Andrographis paniculata which is a very well-known medicinal plant, people were using this plant from ancient years, but this another species Andrographis echioides was not explored too much for many years. In this study we tried to find out the important phyto constitiuents, antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of this plant.

Aim: The main aim of the present study, was to screen phytochemical derivatives from an Indian medicinal plant Andrographis echioides (L) Nees and to evaluate the antibacterial potential, and anti-inflammatory activity also.

Study Design: Various tests or experiment was done in this study according to the review of the literature with little modification, a preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out in the plant extracts using qualitative methods. The whole plant of Anrographis echioides was subjected to soxhlet extraction using organic solvent of methanol, acetone, and petroleum ether. The antibacterial activity of acetone, methanol and petroleum ether whole plant extracts of Andrographis echioides was carried out using agar well diffusion method, anti-inflammatory activity was checked using fresh egg albumin method, and a statistical analysis was done using SPSS to prove that there is a strong correlation between the activity of our plant sample and a standard commercial drug (NASID).

Place and Duration of the Study: The whole study was done in Panskura Banamali College, Vidyasagar University, Department of Biotechnology sponsored by BOOST, Louis Pasteur laboratory, West Bengal, India. The study was done between 17th August 2018 - 30th February 2019. 

Results: All these tests were done triplicate and the mean value was taken. The phytochemical analysis reveals that the plant has some important phytoconstituents such as Tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides and terpenoids. The Acetone and Methanol extracts are showed the best zone of inhibition against the severe pathogens such as S. aureus (A.E-33 mm, M.E-28 mm), S. typhi (A.E- 26.67 mm, M.E-28.33 mm). The methanolic extract of Andrographis echioides showed excellent anti-inflammatory activity comparing to the NASID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) Diclofenac sodium, it showed almost same activity.

Conclusion: Experimental findings reveal Andrographis echioides is the best herbal to control specially S. typhi, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae. The phytochemical constituents which are responsible for many pharmacological activities, may be useful for the evolution of pharmaceutical and for the therapy of ailments, and also can used as a an potent anti-inflammatory natural remedy without any side effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Root Colonizing Dark Septate Endophyic Fungal Associations in Urginea indica and Urginea wightii Accessions

B. Mohana, Shiva Kameshwari, Hanumanth Rao

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130200

Urginea indica belongs to Hyacinthaceae family. It is also known as Indian squill, commonly called as wild Onions. The over exploitation and habitat degradation has resulted in the loss of habitat and it has caused genetic depletion and loss of genetic diversity. Immediate Measures have to be undertaken for conservation, to save this economically important medicinal plant. The present investigation is an attempt to highlight the occurance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE) fungal association found in the root bulbs of Urginea indica. 8 Accessions of Urginea was examined in Urginea indica kunth and Urginea wightii accessions, collected from various regions of Karnataka and South India. Fungal Symbiosis was present in all the accessions, with 100% root infection. Urginea has DSE fungal association and AM Association.

This is the first report on the DSE fungal association in Urginea indica kunth. In addition to the prevalance of AM fungal symbiosis. The role of DSE is still in infancy. Though noclear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonizations was recognized. Our studies suggests the coexistence of AM and DSE fungal colonizations are common terrestrial habitats especially the xerophytic environment. DSE-plant symbiosis should not be limited to nutritional uptake but mediates other parameters such as drought resistance, stress tolerance and herbivore resistance. Our results show 100% infection by AM and DSE fungal colonies. Infection levels were high throughout the year, the highest levels occurring in the most nutrient-stressed situations. Their occurrence and variaton in different accessions is discussed below.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnomedicinal Information of Selected Members of Vitaceae with Special Reference to Kerala State

Rani Joseph, Scaria K. Varghese

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130201

An ethnobotanical exploration of selected Vitaceae members of Kerala state was conducted from September 2014 to December 2018. During the ethnobotanical surveys, personal interviews were conducted with herbal medicine practitioners, traditional healers, elder tribal people and village dwellers. Field studies were conducted at regular intervals in various seasons in different regions of Kerala. Some of the genus belonging Vitaceae have ethnomedicinal significance stated by herbal medicine practitioners and elder tribal persons. It is an urgent need for documenting these peculiar plant species before such valuable knowledge becomes inaccessible and extinct.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Copper Using Activated Carbon Adsorbent and Its Antibacterial Antifungal Activity

K. Kayalvizhi, N. M. I. Alhaji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130202

Batch adsorption equilibrium of Cu (II) was studied by using saw dust Chitosan composite beads. Experiments were performed at different pH, various concentrations of adsorbent and adsorbate, agitation speed, contact time for adsorption of Cu (II). Adsorption capacity and percentage removal were calculated. Thermodynamics parameters such as ∆H, ∆S, were calculated. The result shows that Chitosan composite charcoal bead is a good adsorbent for Cu (II) removal. For the activated carbon adsorbent antibacterial and antifungal activity have analyzed and reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Potential of Aqueous and Ethanol Extract of Leaves and Roots of Napoleona imperialis

Etim, Okon Effiom, Bassey, Utibe Evans, Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey, Sunday Sambo, Nnamudi, Anthony Chibuzor

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130203

Napoleona imperialis is a wild plant commonly found in South eastern part of Nigeria which is mostly used for the treatment of wounds. The aim of this research was to evaluate the in vitro anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves and roots of Napoleona imperialis. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potential of the extracts were evaluated with ascorbic acid as standard. Lipoxidase activity, membrane stabilization and percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was assayed using spectrophotometric method with reference drugs as standard. The DPPH radical scavenging potential of the aqueous leaf extract was observed to be maximum at a concentration of 150 μg/ml which is similar to the result obtained for ascorbic acid. There was a statistically significant difference in the ABTS radical scavenging potential of the ethanol leaf extract (23.67±0.61) and ethanol root extract (32.54±0.84) at 10 µg/ml when compared with ascorbic acid (9.90±0.26). The ethanol leaf extract showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition of lipoxidase activity at 100 μg/ml (20.88±0.77) and 150 μg/ml (31.20±0.80) when compared to reference drug (26.28±0.68 and 31.67±0.82 respectively). Furthermore, the ethanol leaf extract demonstrated a percentage membrane stabilization activity of 41.78±1.08 and 43.65±1.12 at 20 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml respectively compared with the standard drug diclofenac (38.35±0.99 and 41.86±1.08 respectively). The present study therefore suggests that extract of N. imperialis has good anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential and could be ameliorated in diseases due to inflammation and oxidation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-arthritic Potential of Casuarina equisetifolia Fruit Methanolic Extract

Santosh Kumar Vaidya, Dharmesh K. Golwala, Mitali V. Shrimanker, Darpini S. Patel, Satyajit Sahoo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 42-53
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130204

Aims: Antioxidant and anti-arthritic potential of Casuarina equisetifolia fruit methanolic extract.

Place: C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy and Research, Wadhwan, Surendranagar, Gujarat, India.

Methodology: Extract was subjected to qualitative and quantitative investigation then antioxidant properties of extract was determine by two method namely Nitric Oxide free radical scavenging activity and Reducing power by FeCl3 method. Based on Phytochemical and antioxidant result anti-arthritic activity was performed on wistar rats using Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) and evaluated different parameter like paw volume, arthritic index, biochemical parameter and hematological parameter.

Results: In this study found that the methanolic extract of Casuarina equisetifolia fruit (MLCEF) contain significant percentage of secondary metabolite like poly phenol that properties was proved antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties was determined by two methods the MLCEF IC50 Value 30.27±2.43 and 158.45±7.15 was found IC50 value reveled that MLCEF is a potent free radical scavenge capacity. Casuarina equisetifolia fruit (MLCEF) of 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant increasement in body wt from day 12th to 21st and significantly reduction in rat paw edema was observed from day 6th to 21st and it could be significantly normalize the haematological (like Hb, WBC and ESR) and biochemical abnormalities (like urea, ALT, AST and ALP) adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of CFA induced arthritis.         

Conclusion: The study outcome reveled that MLCEF is contain significant amount of polyphenol and that properties exhibit good antioxidant properties and significant antiarthritic properties. The actual mechanism of action of extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis is not clear with these studies. The action of extracts on proinflammatory mediators like TNF-α, Interleukins and other relevant mediators will be carried out in future to study its mechanism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Agro Forestry Landuse in Govind Pashuvihar Wildlife Sanctuary Uttarakhand India

Showkat Aziem, Ajeet Kumar Negi, Naseer A. Mir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130205

The present investigation was carried out to document ethano-medicinal plant diversity in agroforestry land-use in Govind pashuvihar wildlife sanctuary Uttarakhand. For the present study 10 sample plots of 1 hectare each were randomly placed in 5 selected villages across the wildlife sanctuary. A total of 29 plant species including 22 herbs, 5 shrubs and 2 tree species were recorded to have medicinal importance in the local recipe. Asteraceae (4), Rosaceae (4) and Polygonaceae (4) form the dominant families of medicinal importance. These plants were used to treat a total of 17 different diseases. The medicinal plants in high altitudes are facing multiple threats due to multiple causes and it is thus imperative to have alternative land-use for conservation of these medicinal plants and agroforestry being the prominent land-use could be precursor for the conservation of medicinal plants and evade pressure from the natural habitat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer Efficacy of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. Extracts on Triple Negative Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

S. Rajhans, K. Bhadresha, D. K. Yadav, R. M. Rawal, H. A. Pandya, A. U. Mankad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130206

In this 21st century cancer has become the second big reason for death next to heart attack in both developed and the developing countries.  Worldwide, there are almost 2.1 million newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in 2018, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer cases among women. Triple Negative Human Breast Cancer is one of the types of human breast cancer. The plant extracts of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. has been used against the Triple Negative Human Breast Cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 for the current experiment All the 5 parts (leaf, stem, flower, fruit and seed) had been selected for the experiment and the extracts of the various parts were made in hydro-alcoholic solvent i.e. methanol: Water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Utilization of Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

A. I. Sodimu, J. Apah, M. B. Usman, R. A. Suleiman, G. L. Lapkat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130207

Hydrocotyl asiatica (L.) is commonly used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. However, little is known about is medicinal use in Nigeria. Thus, a multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 10 marketers and 40 herbal practitioners. Questionnaires were purposively administered to key informants in the Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. However, only 45 were retrieved in the end. The questionnaire focused on demographic information of respondents, ailment treated, preparation and administration protocols. Results revealed various diseases are treated with H. asiatica, which include: headache, cough scurvy and mouth sore, fibroid, menstrual pain, waist pain, back ache, weak libido, sexually transmitted infections, hypertension, amongst others. This herbaceous species can be used alone or mix with other herbs such as Pipper guineensis, Ocimum grandiflorum, Allium cepa, amongst other. Standardization of measurement in the use of H. asiatica is through the use of table and tea spoons. However, it is recommended that adequate storage facilities should be provided to check excessive dryness of the kola and pest infestation during storage. Also, the sustainability of biodiversity and biological resources of the species and other important medicinal plants should be ensured so that individual plants do not go into extinction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Sedative and Anxiolytic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet Seeds in Experimental Mice Model

Joushan Ara, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Md. Saeedul Alam Nizami, Abu Sadat Md. Sayem

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 77-83
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130208

Aims: Lablab purpureus (Fabaceae) a well-known Bangladeshi vegetable combines a great number of qualities with its adaptability and functional food properties. But still there is no evidance based report on neuropharmacological activities of Lablab purpureus seeds. For this reason, the present study was designed to analyze in vivo CNS effect of methanolic extract of Lablab purpureus seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, USTC between April 2017 and May 2018.

Methodology: In this study, the crude seeds extract of Lablab purpureus was evaluated for its sedative and anxiolytic effect using animal behavioral models, such as open field and hole cross tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus maze (EPM) test for its anxiolytic potential.

Results: In open field and hole cross test, the seeds extract of Lablab purpureus showed a dose dependent suppression of motor activity and exploratory behaviour. In EPM test, animals treated with higher dose of methanolic extract showed significant (p<0.01) increased exploration to and time spent in EPM open arms.

Conclusion: This study provide in vivo evidence that the methanolic extract of Lablab purpureus has significant sedative and anxiolytic activity. Further studies on active constituent of the extract can provide approaches for therapeutic intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical and Mineral Constituents of Piper guineense Schum. & Thonn. and Piper Umbellatum Linn: Implications for Ethnomedicine

E. M. Isikhuemen, B. O. Ogbomwan, I. U. Efenudu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 84-97
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i130209

Aims: A significant number of tropical rainforest shrubs and lianes are inextricably linked to human use as food, spices and/or medicine. This study evaluates phytochemical and mineral constituents and ethnomedicinal uses of Piper guineense Schum. & Thonn and Piper umbellatum Linn.         

Methods: Two phased investigations – ethnomedicinal uses and phytochemical/mineral constituents of P. guineense and P. umbellatum – were carried out in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Firstly, key informants’ interview and questionnaire were used to elicit reactions from respondents (vendors and end users) on ethnomedicinal and sundry uses of P. guineense and P. umbellatum in nine purposively selected markets out of 27. Secondly, samples of leaves and stems of P. guineense and P. umbellatum were collected and analysed in the laboratory for selected phytochemicals (alkaloid, cyanogenic glycosides, tannin, flavonoid, tannins, anthraquinones, saponin and phenol), and minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Fe, Zn).

Results: Market survey revealed that vendor/end users (85%) were well-informed on the uses of the plants for food (spices, condiments) and ethnomedicine. Most respondents (80%) affirmed that the leaves were frequently used for flavouring; and for preparing traditional medicinal soups when combined with assorted vegetables. Respondents (80%) averred that the leaf was the most frequently used followed by stems (10.9%), roots (5.5%) and seeds (3.6%). P. guineense was considered best for stomach disorder/ulcer, respiratory/urinary tract infections; P. umbellatum most preferred for arthritis, fever and fertility/womb cleansing. Phytochemical analysis revealed P. umbellatum stem had more alkaloids, flavonoids and phenol; and anthraquinone in the leaf while P. guineense stem had more saponins and tannins. However, mineral analyses revealed more Ca and Mg in P. guineense leaf; and K, Na, Zn and P in P. umbellatum stem while Fe was higher in the leaf.

Conclusion: P. guineense and P. umbellatum are aromatic liane and shrub used for flavouring and spicing of food, and medicine. These fairly ubiquitous and underutilized plants can contribute significantly to food and health needs of forest dependent people in Nigeria and elsewhere in West Africa. The study has revealed that these aromatic plants are rich sources of phytomedicines and important minerals. Further investigation on the phytochemical/pharmacological potentials and ecological idiosyncrasies of these underutilized aromatic rainforest liane and shrub is recommended.