Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiproliferative Potential of Celtis iguanaea against Ovarian (OVCAR-3) and Colon (HT-29) Tumor Cell

Barbara Zanchet, Daniela Miorando, Denise Bianchin Gomes, Gelvani Locateli, Cristian Alex Dalla Vecchia, Patrícia Zanotelli Serpa, Ana Lúcia Tasca Góis Ruiz, Theodoro Marcel Wagner, Walter Antônio Roman Junior

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v30i330177

Natural products have been reported as a main source of anticancer molecules. The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg., (Cannabaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil where it is known as “esporão-de-galo or taleira”. The leaves are popularly used as anti-inflammatory, in the treatment of body pain and urinary infections. However, the antiproliferative potential against human cancer cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, extracts and different fractions from the leaves of C. iguanaea were tested in vitro, against a panel tumor cell lines. The hydroalcoholic extract was inactive, while dichloromethane extract showed promisor antiproliferative effects. In turn, the dichloromethane fraction showed potent cytostatic activity against ovarian cell line (OVCAR-3, GI50 = 4.65 mg/ml). However, the stronger antiproliferative effects with high selectivity were observed for the hexane fraction that exhibited activity against ovarian (GI50 = 3.99 mg/ml) and colon (HT-29, GI50 = 3.16 mg/ml). The antiproliferative effects observed are probably related to the presence of 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol and gamma-sitosterol present in the hexane fraction and detected by GC/MS. This is the first report of antiproliferative activity of C. iguanaea and the results suggested that the molecules of fraction hexane are promising chemotherapeutic compounds, especially against tumor cell of ovarian and colon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Human Diseases in the Tivaouane Department, Senegal

Kady Diatta, William Diatta, Alioune Dior Fall, Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng, Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye, Abdou Sarr, Mamadou Bamba Seye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v30i330178

Background: In Africa, particularly in Senegal, 70% of the population resort to traditional medicine.

Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to inventory the plants used to the the treatment of erectile dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes etc because the populations often resort to phytotherapy.

Methods: Fifty traditional practitioners, fifty herbalists and fifty resources persons were conducted to identify the plants used in the management of affections in the Tivaouane department.

Results: Ninety seven plants could be identified and divided into eighty nine genera and forty eight families. Thus, Fabaceae families with 18 species, Euphorbiaceae (8 species), Combretaceae (5 species), Malvaceae (4 species), Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Meliaceae Myrtaceae and Poaceae each with 3 species and  Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, Lythraceae, Loganaceae and Menispermaceae each with 2 species; Apocynaceae, Balanitaceae, Bignoniaceae, Capparidaceae, Caricaceae, Casuarinaceae, Celastraceae, Cochlospermaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Loraceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, Moraceae , Moringaceae, Musaceae  Olacaceae, Polygalaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Sphenocleaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae, Verbenaceae and Zingiberaceae are represented by a single species. The most used plant for antipyretic herbal medicine is Senna occidentalis with a citation percentage of 31.72%, followed by Khaya senegalensis (17.18%) and Citrus aurantifolia (11.01%). The most used plant for antalgic herbal medicine is Grewia bicolor with a citation percentage of 19.48%, followed by Acacia nilotica (12.21%) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (9.59%). The most used plant for antihypertensive is Zizyphus mauritiana with a citation percentage of 16.83%, followed by Combrethum micranthum (13.37%) and Oxythenantera abyssinica (11.88%). The most used plant for cicatrizing is Acacia nilotica with a citation percentage of 25.71%, followed by Vernonia colorata (12%) and Leptadenia hastata (10.29%). The most used plant for erectile dysfunction is Flueggea virosa with a citation percentage of 24.14%, followed by Zingiber officinale (18.96%) and Cassia sieberiana (12.07%). The leaves (51%) and barks (18%) are the organs used for the medicinal preparations. The decoction (44%) is the most use followed by maceration (29%) and powder (16%).

Conclusion: Further investigations are needed to explore the bioactive compounds of these herbal medicines. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of many affections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract from the Fruit of Solanum indicum Linn. (Solanaceae) in Rats

Nadine Joissy Epoh, Olivette Laure Matafack Dongmo, Herve Tchoumbou Tadjoua, Félicité Mbiapo Tchouanguep, Phelix Bruno Telefo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v30i330179

Aim: The fruit of Solanum indicum Linn have been reported traditionally to have anti-hypertensive and diuretic properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicological potential of S. indicum fruits aqueous extract through the acute and sub-acute toxicity tests in rats.

Methodology: For acute toxicity evaluation, a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of the plant extract was administrated in 60 days old female albino Wistar rats. Then, the animals were observed for 14 days. Sub-acute toxicity studies were conducted with 50 adult rats of both gender that orally received during 28 days, increasing doses of the plant extract. Their body weight and food intake were weekly collected. At the end of the experiment, biochemical and hematological parameters as well as histological analysis of organs (liver, kidneys and spleen) were undertaken.

Results: Single oral administration of 5000 mg/kg dose of the fruit plant aqueous extract produced no mortality or signs of toxicity. During sub-acute test, no variations in body weight and food intake of both animals gender were observed. An important decrease in male’s rat liver weight were obtained at the dose 25 mg/kg; serum urea, total cholesterol, TAG, ALP and AST levels were significantly lowered in male especially at the dose 50 mg/kg, but this decrease was noticed only in serum urea, ALP and ALT in female rats. Furthermore, a significant decrease in platelets number, serum PCT, MPV and PDW levels were recorded in all treated male rats except those receiving the highest extract dose. No structural changes in treated animal organs section histology were observed when compared to controls.

Conclusion: The fruits aqueous extracts of S. indicum is safe when administered acutely and for 28 days in rats. However, alterations on their hematological and biochemical parameters were not closely related with the dose, implying caution on its use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Bark of Cordia millenii Essential Oil: Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Activities

Opeyemi N. Avoseh, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Yahaya Yakubu, Peter O. Afolabi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v30i330180

Aims: Considering the lack of scientific studies focused on the pharmacological activity of Cordia millenii essential oil, this work was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of essential oil from the root bark.

Study Design: The design of the study include collection of root bark of Cordia millenii, hydrodistillation of essential oil from the plant and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, Nigeria between May 2017 and April 2018.

Methodology: The root bark of C. millenii were collected from Ayetoro, Ilesha (7°37¢0N 4°43¢0E), Osun State, Nigeria in June 2017. Essential oils were obtained from the air-dry sample by hydrodistillation procedure in an all glass Clevenger-apparatus. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The anti-nociceptive action was established from the hot-plate analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism (version 7.02).

Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil was statistically significant (p < 0.001) at 1st and 3rd h for the 100 mg/kg p.o., at 1st-3rd h for the 200/kg mg p.o. and at 3rd and 4th h for the 400 mg/kg p.o. In addition, the 100 mg/kg p.o. showed significant activity (p < 0.01) at 2nd h. Also, the anti-inflammatory activity was significant (p < 0.05) for 100 mg/kg p.o. (4th h), 200 mg/kg p.o. (4th h) and 400 mg/kg p.o (1st h). The essential oil of C. millenii displayed high activity (p <0.001) for all doses in the hot plate anti-nociceptive assay which was time and dose independent.

Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the essential oil of C. millenii was effective in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb.

Open Access Review Article

Nutraceutical and Pharmacological Appraisal of Āmla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): A Review

Mohammad Fazil, Sadia Nikhat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v30i330176

Āmla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Family: Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and sub-tropical regions of South-east Asia. The tree is 5-25 metres tall, deciduous, having deltoid-squamiform leaves and bears pale-green globose fruits 2-4 cm in diameter. In Unani medicine, it is widely used in compound formulations or in raw form in many disorders of central nervous system, gastro-intestinal system, skin, hair, general debility etc. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana, i.e., drugs which promote longevity and delay ageing. Āmla fruit is one of the richest sources of Vitamin C (478.56 mg/ 100 ml), alongwith important constituents such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium etc. recent researches on Āmla have revealed the presence of several biologically active substances with scientifically proven effects as anti-oxidant, anti-ageing, immunomodulatory, memory enhancing, protective towards vital organs such as liver, heart kidneys; anti-depressant, anti-cancer and many more beneficial effects. Most of the experiments have been carried out on Āmla fruit and are dose-dependent. Moreover, no toxic effects have been reported in any of the studies. This review focuses on the various biologically active components of Āmla and its relevance in modern pharmacology.