In vitro Antiproliferative Potential of Celtis iguanaea against Ovarian (OVCAR-3) and Colon (HT-29) Tumor Cell
European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Natural products have been reported as a main source of anticancer molecules. The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg., (Cannabaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil where it is known as “esporão-de-galo or taleira”. The leaves are popularly used as anti-inflammatory, in the treatment of body pain and urinary infections. However, the antiproliferative potential against human cancer cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, extracts and different fractions from the leaves of C. iguanaea were tested in vitro, against a panel tumor cell lines. The hydroalcoholic extract was inactive, while dichloromethane extract showed promisor antiproliferative effects. In turn, the dichloromethane fraction showed potent cytostatic activity against ovarian cell line (OVCAR-3, GI50 = 4.65 mg/ml). However, the stronger antiproliferative effects with high selectivity were observed for the hexane fraction that exhibited activity against ovarian (GI50 = 3.99 mg/ml) and colon (HT-29, GI50 = 3.16 mg/ml). The antiproliferative effects observed are probably related to the presence of 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol and gamma-sitosterol present in the hexane fraction and detected by GC/MS. This is the first report of antiproliferative activity of C. iguanaea and the results suggested that the molecules of fraction hexane are promising chemotherapeutic compounds, especially against tumor cell of ovarian and colon.