Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna sieberiana DC (Caesalpiniaceae) and its Fractions

Alioune Dior Fall, Awa Ndiaye Sy, Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng, Abdou Sarr, Mbaye Dieng

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i330154

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the phytochemical groups of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Senna sieberiana DC and its fractions and to investigate their free radical scavenging activity.

Methods: S. sieberiana leaves were extracted with hydroethanolic solvent. From the hydroethanolic extract 3 fractions were obtained after a liquid/liquid fractionation (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water). Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract and its fractions was done using standard reactions. Free radical scavenging activity was assessed using DPPH and ABTS assays. 

Results: Tannins, flavonoids, anthracenic derivatives, sterols and triterpenoids were the main phytochemical constituents of the leaf extract and fractions. The hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Senna sieberiana, its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions and ascorbic acid had respective IC50 values of 191.6±3.82 - 495.73±8.96 - 165.8±4.85 - 50.40±2.65 - 19.53±0.13 µg/ml in ABTS assay.  In DPPH assay,  the IC50 values were  44.8 ± 1.22 - 218.93±9.01 - 32.13 ± 1.8 - 26.4±0.11- 4.66±0.07 µg/ml respectively for the leaf extract, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions and ascorbic acid.

Conclusion: The hydroethanolic leaf extract of S. sieberiana had shown free radical scavenging activity. The aqueous fraction was more active among plant tested samples. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxant Effects of Anthocyanins-Enriched Extract from Odontonema strictum (Nees) Kuntze (Acanthaceae) Flowers: Ca2+ Channels Involvement

Mathieu Nitiéma, Moumouni Koala, Lazare Belemnaba, Jean Claude W. Ouédraogo, Salfo Ouédraogo, Félix Bondo Kini, Sylvin Ouédraogo, Innocent Pierre Guissou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i330155

Aims: We aimed in this study to investigate the mechanisms of the vasorelaxation effect caused by the anthocyanins-enriched extract of Odontonema strictum flowers.

Study Design: Anthocyanins-enriched extract of Odontonema strictum flowers and vasorelaxantes activities of mice aortic rings.

Place and Duration of Study: The flowers of Odontonema strictum (Nees) Kuntze (Acanthaceae) were collected in January 2015 at the “Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS)” experimental station in Ouagadougou. The experiments were conducted in October - November 2018 at the department of Medicine and Traditional Pharmacopeia-Pharmacy (MEPHATRA-PH)/IRSS.

Methodology: The extract was enriched in anthocyanins using Amberlite XAD-7 non-ionic resin column. The vasorelaxant activity of anthocyanins-enriched extract of O. strictum flowers (OSF) was tested using isolated organ-chamber technique with mice aorta rings.

Results: OSF showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects on mice endothelium intact or denuded aortic rings pre-contracted with U46619 (10-7 M) and KCl (80 mM). OSF induced relaxation in the mice aortic rings by stimulating smooth muscle cells. The vasorelaxant effect of OSF (10-1000 µg/mL) was similar in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings. The maximum relaxant effect was 93.78 ± 4.69% and 92.30 ± 3.19% for endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings, respectively. Moreover, after incubation of the aorta rings with OSF (400 µg/mL) or vehicle (0.02% of DMSO) in PSS, OSF blocked the contraction through mechanism involving inhibition of CaCl2 and U46619 effect.

Conclusions: The present study provides a pharmacological evidence for the antihypertensive medicinal use of Odontonema strictum by highlighting its vasorelaxant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemistry of California Lycium cooperi and Lycium andersonii

Gerson Navarrete, Axel Bracquemond, Enrique Villasenor, Michelle Wong, James Adams

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i330156

Aims: To examine the chemistry of two California Lycium species and evaluate the possible use of California Lycium species as dietary supplements especially for age related macular degeneration.

Study Design: This exploratory analytical research used samples of Lycium andersonii and Lycium cooperi collected in the field and analyzed in the lab.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA USA 90089.

Methodology: Plant extracts were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with ultraviolet photodiode array detection in order to identify the chemical characteristics of compounds found in the plants.

Results: Several known compounds were found in extracts of Lycium cooperi and Lycium andersonii foliage and fruit including: zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin monopalmitate and β-cryptoxanthin.  The various California species of Lycium are discussed as possible alternatives to Chinese Lycium barbarum.

Conclusion: California Lycium berries may be suitable substitutes for Chinese Lycium berries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidant and Anti-microbial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles of Essential Oil Extracts from Leaves of Zanthoxylum ovalifolium

B. S. Theerthavathy, Shaukath Arakhanum, B. S. Ravi Kumar, S. Ravi Kiran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i330157

Aim: The present study was aimed to synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Zanthoxylum ovalifolium leaf essential oil extracts and to screen the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial potential of the same.

Place and Duration of Study: The studies were carried out at Department of Botany, AVK College for Women, Hassan and Department of Biochemistry, Aurora’s Degree & PG College, Hyderabad from July 2017 to June 2018

Methodology: The essential oil from leaves of Zanthoxylum ovalifolium was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles of essential oil extract was carried out and characterized by using UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).  The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated in all the extracts. Furthermore, all the extracts were evaluated for anti-microbial activity against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria and four pathogenic fungi using agar disc diffusion technique. Subsequently the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined.

Results: The major compounds identified were Limonene, isofenchol, Geijerene, isothujanol,  Borneol, dihydrocarveol, isobornyl acetate, pregeijerene, b-elemene, trans-caryophyllene and Germacrene D. The TEM analysis of nanoparticles synthesized showed a size of 8 to 14 nm with a  lmax of 450nm. All the extracts were evaluated for in vitro anti-oxidant activity where the AgNP of essential oil extract showed maximum activity of 89.61% and 84.92% respectively for both DPPH free radical scavenging and Hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging assays at a concentration of 100µg/ml. Among all the bacteria tested, B. subtilis was most susceptible at 100µg/ml with zone of inhibition of 22.5mm. While among all the fungi tested, A. niger inhibited more effectively by the AgNP of essential oil extract at 100µg/ml with a zone of inhibition of 16.2mm.

Conclusion: The results obtained were remarkable suggesting that AgNP of essential oil extract possess excellent anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity and can be an alternative bio-friendly source for various pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effective Treatment for Kidney Stone with Local Plants from Aadilabad Telangana State, India

Shaik Hafeez, J. Chapla, A. Suresh, G. Prabhaker, P. M. Sameera, K. Sampath

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i330158

Aim: We aim to treat the poor and downtrodden tribal people of Adilabad district of Telangana State, South India, who are suffering from kidney stones, with locally available plants and with any side effects also without financial burden on them.

Design of the study: Identifying the infected people with kidney stones based on the lab reports, explaining about our treatment, educating them, counseling them, treatment and precautionary measures. 

Place and Duration of Study: Adilabad district, Telangana State, South India. Duration of study is for two years that is 2018 to 2019.

Methodology: We have identified   around 24 patients (male and female) suffering from kidney stone ailment, but we have presented only six patients details in table form. Treatment is with locally available plants for two days, the results were very much success.

Results: After our treatment the kidney stones, though they are large in size they dissolved and were passed through the urinary tract.

Conclusions: Our treatment is pure with plants without any side effects and free of cost. The patients were very much satisfied with our treatment.