Open Access Short Research Article

Nutraceutical Potential and Antipsychotic Activity of Local Dry Fruit Waste – Juglans regia

Rachna Shashikant Jadhav, Shanooba Palamthodi, Bhaskar Saha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230149

Aim: To identify the biologically active components in shells of Juglans regia and study its nutraceutical potential and antipsychotic activity for effective waste management.

Study Design: Biochemical and in vivo analyses of plant extract using established protocols. 

Place and Duration of Study: Sample extraction at Department of Food Science and technology, School of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, DY Patil deemed to be University, Navi Mumbai, India; sample components identification at Sophisticated Analytical Instrument facility (SAIF), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai, India; and in vivo studies for antipsychotic activity using Caenorhabditis elegans at Department of Life Science and Biochemistry, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai, India between November 2018 and May 2019.

Methodology: The shells of Juglans regia were milled and the extract was prepared using Soxhlet extraction at 60oC using methanol as solvent. The GCMS analysis of the extract was carried out using a GC JEOL – The Accu TOF. Antipsychotic activity was studied using pharyngeal pumping assay in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Results: GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of shells of Juglans regia revealed the presence of Tridecanoic acid, Acetoxyacetic acid, nonyl ester, 2-hexenal, 2-ethyl, Eicosanoic acid, phenylmethyl ester, Undecane, Benzeneacetic acid decyl ester, (1-pentyl-allyoxymethoxy-methyl)-benzene), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid(Z,Z), phenylmethyl ester, Benzyl oxytridecanoic acid, 6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid, phenylmethyl ester (Z,Z), 9- octadecanoic acid (Z), phenylmethyl ester, 9,12,15- octadecatrienoic acid, Z [(trimethyl (sil)oxy, 1 – trimethyl (sily)oxy] ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z). Furthermore, behavioural assay done using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism showed that the sample exerted antipsychotic activity at lowest concentration.

Conclusion: The shells of Juglans regia being a natural source, can be used as an alternative to the synthetic antipsychotic drugs that have side effects. Our current work suggests that the walnut shells that end up into trash bins are an excellent source of effective natural biologically active compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditionally Used Anti-hepatitis Plants Species in Dakar District, Senegal

Kady Diatta, William Diatta, Alioune Dior Fall, Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng, Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye, Paulèle Aynina Fall

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230150

Viral etiologies especially viral hepatitis B remain an area of concern sub-Saharan Africa with a variable prevalence between countries. Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral hepatitis, in particular, viral hepatitis B, was conducted in the District of Dakar (Senegal). Forty-two participants were surveyed, which included  18 herbalists, 19 Traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs)and 5 resource persons. Fifty-one plant species were documented from forty-seven genera and thirty families. The most frequently mentioned families were; Fabaceae (11 species); Meliaceae, (4 species); Rubiaceae and Combretaceae (3 species each); Annonnacaea, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Asteraceae (2 species each). All other families were represented by a single species. The decoction was the most common method of préparation (66.66%).  Leaves and trunk bark were the plant parts of the plant most used. The most commonly used species were: Tinospora bakis (85.71%), Gardiena ternifolia (73.8%), Calotropis procera (71.42%), Carica papaya (66.66%), Citrus aurantifolia (64.28%) and Cochlospermum tinctorium (61.9%). It is concluded that the hepatoprotective properties of these plants are certainly induced by chemical compounds that will have to be identified later through phytochemical research.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae)

Chimezie Ekeke, Gordian C. Obute, Chinedum A. Ogazie

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230151

Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae) used for different medicinal purposes in Nigeria and other parts of the world were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to determine their phytochemical profiles. Forty five (45) alkaloids, 36 flavonoids, 18 glycosides and 44 phenolic acids were observed in the plants. P. angulata had the highest concentrations of flavonoids, phenolic acids and alkaloids while P. micarantha had the highest concentration of glycosides. The presence and concentration of these chemicals in these studied species confirm their medicinal and ethno-botanical uses and make them potential sources of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Atakpamé, City of Plateau Region in Togo

Abdel-Akim Esso-Tsar, Batomayena Bakoma, Emmanuel Adangou, Komlan Batawila, Wala Kpérkouma, Dourma Marra, Pereki Hodabalo, Akpagana Koffi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230152

Aim: Plants are a great source of active substances and are used to cure a lot of diseases. In order to know and list medicinal plants used by traditional therapists and herbalists from the town of Atakpamé, an ethnobotanical investigation has been conducted.

Methodology: It is a transversal and descriprtive study that has been carried out from 22th December 2018 to 16th March 2019.

Results: It has been conducted nearby 10 traditional therapists and 20 herbalists by direct interviews using a structured questionnaire. The traditional therapists were all men and the herbalists all women. This study has enabled to list 61 species belonging to 30 families grouped into 56 genera, used in the treatment of 30 affections and symptoms. The botanical families more represented were Euphorbiaceae with 8 species, Caesalpiniaceae and Apocynaceae with 5 species each. The most used organs in the recipes are leaves (44,26%). The decoction (47,54%) is the most used mode of preparation. The oral route (76,47%) is the most frequently way of administration. The most healed affections were malaria, infections and anemia with the same percentage of 16,76%. The majority of medicinal recipes are monospecifics.

Conclusion: The results of this study can be a source of information for scientific researches in phytochemistry and pharmacology.

Open Access Review Article

Inhibition of Mmp-9 Expression through Nf-Kβ by Natural Compounds as a Possible Therapeutic Adjuvant Strategy in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

Victor Alves de Oliveira, Diego Cipriano Chagas, Jefferson Rodrigues Amorim, Thaís Rodrigues Nogueira, Thais Alves Nogueira, Renato de Oliveira Pereira, Luana Mota Martins, Gilmara Peres Rodrigues, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Benedito Borges da Silva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230153

MMP-9 expression may be induced at the transcriptional level in response to different agents. Due to its fundamental role in cancer progression, the control of MMP expression, especially MMP-9, is the possible target of future adjuvant therapies that seek to reduce metastases and angiogenesis in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to search in the literature available evidences of extracts/or natural compounds that have potential therapeutic capacity to inhibit MMP-9 expression. Extracts and/or natural compounds identified in this review play a significant role in the inhibition of MMP-9 expression via NF-kβ, and may act on the prevention of metastases from primary breast tumors. The majority of the studies found have shown that natural products are capable of suppressing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, thus inhibiting the formation of in vitro metastases. Further studies are warranted to understand the potential mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis from signaling cascades intrinsic to the tumor. Moreover, the NF-kβ, followed by Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases / Activator protein 1 (MAPK / AP-1) were the major pathways affected by the extracts and / or compounds studied. These pathways are directly linked to MMP-9 expression.