Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Consumption of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Azadirachta indica during Pregnancy and Lactation on Body Weight Changes in Rats

Ephraim E. Ekanem, Iyare O. Cordilia, Charles, O. Ezeh, Pearl A. Okeke, Nkiru A. Katchy, Deborah B. Adeniyi, Iyare E. Eghosa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i130144

Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) and Azadirachta indica (AI) are widely used in Nigeria for medicinal purposes and have also been shown to affect weight changes anecdotally through mechanisms not yet defined. There are reports of decreased food consumption and weight gain in rats consuming HS extracts as the drinking solutions but there is paucity of data on the effect of these two extracts, administered by gavage, on weight changes during pregnancy and lactation. This study was therefore designed to investigate this in relation to food and fluid intake. 40 pregnant rats weighing 150-200 g were used for this study. They were divided into three groups: control, HS and AI groups. HS and AI groups were subdivided into two subgroups of low and high doses. Extract administration was orally by gavage and commenced on day 1 of pregnancy and ended on postnatal day 21. Food and fluid consumption were monitored throughout pregnancy and lactation. The results showed that the aqueous extract of HS and AI increased consumption of food and fluid during pregnancy and lactation, increased maternal weight gain during pregnancy and lactation. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that consumption of aqueous extracts of HS and AI during pregnancy and lactation increased fluid and food intake and weight gain of dams with a possible potential to accelerate weight loss or decrease postpartum weight retention during lactation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Alcoholic Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus upon the Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in vitro and upon the Post-harvest Quality of Guavas

Ana P. F. A. Santos, Amanda P. Mattos, Adriana T. Itako, João B. Tolentino Júnior, Gabriela S. Moura, Kátia R. F. Schwan-Estrada

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i130145

Aims: This work aimed at evaluating the effects of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of lemongrass upon the control in vitro of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and upon the post-harvest quality of guavas “Paluma”.

Methodology: We analyzed the inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation of the pathogen at different concentrations of the extracts (8%; 5%; 3%; 1.5% and 0.5%). In the post-harvest assay, the guavas were treated by immersion in distilled water, ethanolic and methanolic extracts (1%; 0.5% and 0.25%) and stored at 25ºC ± 2ºC for eight days. We evaluated mass loss, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, ratio, reducing and non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and pH and the incidence of anthracnose.

Results: In the test in vitro, the pathogen growth inhibition was dose-dependent and the sporulation was completely inhibited upon higher concentrations of extract. At post-harvest, the fruits maintained their physicochemical characteristics, and the treatments were not efficient at retarding fruit ripening. Although the tested treatments inhibited the plant pathogen C. gloesporioides in vitro, they were not efficient at controlling the disease in vivo.

Conclusion: The extracts showed control in vitro of C. gloeosporioides at 8%. However, the extracts were not effective at controlling the disease after harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of Algal Species Found in Sutrapada Coastal Region of Gujarat

Kamlesh Gadhvi, Parth Depani, Ridhdhi Karangiya, Suhas Vyas

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i130146

The aim of the present study is to assess the phytochemicals of nine marine algae species which is further divided in to three classes. The qualitative phytochemical analysis was done on nine different algae species of Saurashtra coastal belt in Gujarat. For the qualitative phytochemical analysis total 16 different parameters were analyzed on algae species. Extracts prepared in two solvents viz., chloroform extract (CE) and acetone-water extract (AWE). Amongst the two different extracts, acetone water extract showed the presence of maximum number of phytochemical compounds. Next to that, acetone, water extract showed steroid, glycosides, tannin, protein and flavonoids compounds were present in all algae species. The presence of tannins, steroid, glycosides, reducing sugar, protein and flavonoids were observed in two extracts of three algal classes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Assessment of Euphorbia lateriflora (Schum and Thonn) in Wistar Albino Rats

Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Adewale Adetutu, Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Folorunsho Ayodeji Ajayi, Adedoyin Adetutu Ajibade, Peter Adegbola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i130147

Aims: The toxicity of ethanol whole plant extract of Euphorbia lateriflora was assessed in Albino Wistar rats.

Methodology: The LD50 was at single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, the sub-acute dosage of the extract was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.t twice daily for 7 days and the effect of the extract on liver, kidney, and haematological parameters was assessed and recorded during these periods.

Results: The result of the oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg/bwt shows that the LD50 of the extract is greater than 5000 mg/kg/bwt. After 7 days of oral administration, 500 mg/kg/bwt of the extract caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the packed cell volume. At 500 mg/kg/bwt, the extract caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in ALP, total protein and albumin and decrease in serum electrolytes (Na+, k+ and Cl-). Histopathological analysis revealed the expansion of fibrous spaces in the liver and thickening of the glomerular basement of the kidney in the group fed with 500 mg/kg/b.w.t of extracts.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the dose and time-dependent selective organ toxicity effect of this extract suggested that the extract might be relatively unsafe for consumption at especially high concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Kigelia africana (LAM) Benth (Bignoniaceae)

John A. Falode, Olamide O. Crown, Samson O. Famuyiwa, Christianah A. Elusiyan, Ifedayo V. Ogungbe, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, Mary T. Olaleye, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i130148

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of some neurotransmitters. Its inhibition is one of the treatment strategies employed in the management Alzheimer diseases. Flavonoids isolated from the leaves of Kigelia africana were investigated for their comparative AChE inhibition.

The extract of the leaves was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) to obtain four fractions using n-hexane (n-hex, 100%), n-hexane/dichloromethane (hex/DCM, 1:1), dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (DCM/EtOAc, 1:1) and ethyl acetate/methanol (EtOAc/MeOH, 1:1). The four fractions were subjected to AChE inhibitory study with DCM/EtOAc (1:1) fraction showing the highest inhibitory activity. Three flavonoids were isolated from this fraction and their structures were elucidated and characterised using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. Their spectroscopic data compared well with literature.

The compounds demonstrated considerable inhibition of AChE activity with luteolin (1), rutin (2) and quercetin (3) that showed IC50 of 945.0, 282.1, 254.8 μg/ml respectively as against the IC50 of 38.93 μg/ml for rivastigmine, a well-known cholinesterase inhibitor. Compound 3 showed 17.89 ± 0.57 and 7.70 ± 0.64 μ/l/mg protein at 200 and 400 μg/ml respectively, for AChE activity as against 10.37 ± 0.99 and 6.24 ± 1.24 μ/l/mg protein showed by rivastigmine at 200 and 400 μg/ml respectively.

This study showed that the constituents responsible for the AChE inhibition in the crude extract as reported by Falode et al., 2017 resided in the DCM/EtOAc (1:1) fraction. The structure-activity relationship of the flavonoids revolves around substitution in position 3 of the compounds.