Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties from the Extract and Fractions of Annona senegalensis Pers (Annonaceae) Stem Bark Grown in Nigeria

Chukwudi P. Omeke, Helen O. Udodeme, Felix I. Nwafor, Christopher O. Ezugwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i430138

Aim: This study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of the extract and fractions of Annona senegalensis stem bark through in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

Study Design:  The study followed a completely randomized design (CRD) of groups of treatments and control samples for all the tests.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between January and September 2016.

Methodology: Phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activities using different models (reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Hydroxyl radical scavenging, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging assays) were carried out. In vivo antioxidant activity was determined from the assays of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and total protein while hepatoprotective activity was evaluated against CCI4 induced liver damage and elevated serum marker enzymes.

Results: The results showed that the extract and fractions of stem bark of A. senegalensis had appreciable amounts of total flavonoids (845.67±93.62 mg/g) and total phenols (866.67±8.41), and exhibited good antioxidant activities at higher concentrations. Doses of the extract and fractions administered at 400 mg/kg protected the CCI4–induced lipid peroxidation and significantly (P = .05) reduced the elevated serum marker enzymes - aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP), and bilirubin level on a dose and solvent dependent fashion. At 200 and 400 mg/kg extract, the serum AST was reduced (by 40.34% and 45.66% respectively) as much as the MeOH fraction (43.88%) and control (43.44%), whereas EtOAc fractions gave significantly the best reduction (52.49%). The ethyl acetate fraction gave the best activity among all the fractions.

Conclusion: The results showed that the stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents, and justifies its use in traditional herbal practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts, Hydrolates and Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants and Control of Cucumber Anthracnose

Amanda P. Mattos, Fabricio P. Povh, Bruna B. Rissato, Vítor V. Schwan, Kátia R. F. Schwan-Estrada

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i430139

Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity effect of the crude aqueous extract (CAE), hydrolate (HY) and essential oil (EO) of Corymbia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Curcuma longa against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria steviae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Sclerotium rolfsii, and assess, in situ, the effectiveness of CAE of medicinal plants in reducing the severity of the cucumber anthracnose.

Methodology: The EOs and HYs were obtained by hydrodistillation. The CAEs were prepared by the turbolysis method. Mycelial growth of the fungi was measured daily, by the diametrically opposite method. In the in vivo test, the CAEs were sprayed on the cotyledon leaves of healthy cucumber plants with three days after were inoculated with C. lagenarium. The severity of assessment of the disease was based on a scale of notes.

Results: The medicinal plants studied showed antifungal activity against all or almost all pathogens. In general, treatment with CAE and HY of C. longa revealed the highest inhibition against the fungi tested. With the exception of the EO of C. longa, the other EOs showed total inhibition against all the fungi and in all the concentrations tested. Compared to control, in in vivo assays CAE of C. citratus presents a potential for control of cucumber anthracnose reducing the severity of the disease.

Conclusion: The medicinal plants studied produce compounds associated with antimicrobial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn in Decreasing Blood Uric Acid Levels of Hyperuricemic Male Rats

Muhammad Yanis Musdja, Abdul Arief Azter, Ahmad Musir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i430140

Background: Gout causes attacks of pain and swelling in one or more joints and control of serum uric acid level has been used as one of the therapeutic methods for gout. Inhibition method of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity which can oxidize hypoxanthine to uric acid has been commonly used to decrease serum uric acid level. On the other hand, Elephantopus scaber Linn leaf has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as folk medicine by some people in Indonesia.

Aims: This study was to determine the hypouricemic effect of ethanol extract of Elephantopus scaber leaf by in vivo study in caffeine (PO)-induced hyperuricemic male rats.

Methodology: The E. scaber leaf was obtained from Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants, Bagor, Indonesia. Preparation of E. scaber leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were induced by using caffeine with dose 27 mg/200 g b.w until the levels in the blood of male rats become hyperuricemic. Equipment (Easy Touch) was used by detecting the level of uric acid in a rat blood. Equipment (Easy Touch) was used by detecting the level of uric acid in a rat blood. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a positive control was used allopurinol 36 mg/200 g b.w, test preparation were used 3 doses, i.e, 175 mg/200 g b.w,  350 mg/200 g b.w and 700 mg/200 b.w which suspended in Na-CMC 0.5%.

Results: The results from a decrease in blood uric acid levels in rats, on the 15th days showed that a dose of 350 mg / 200 g b.w gave decrease in the highest percentage ie 43%. Statistical analysis on the 15th day showed that all of the test preparation groups of E. scaber had effects decrease uric acid in blood serum of rats and significantly different from negative controls (p ≤ 0.05). The dose of 350 mg/200 g b.w of E. scaber had the same effect with a dose of 36 mg/200 g b.w allopurinol in reducing uric acid in experimental rats.

Conclusions: E. scaber is a plant that is quite potential to be used in the treatment of gout.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Comparative Antioxidant Activities of Fractions Isolated from Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) Bark Extracts

Mst. Shirajum Munira, Md. Afubbul Islam, Md. Shariful Islam, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly, Mst. Luthfun Nesa, Md. Abdul Muhit

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i430141

Aims: Our study was carried out to appraise the phytochemical screening and antioxidant potentials of Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) bark extracts.

Study Design:  For the purpose of this experiment the extracts were subjected for an in-vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in August 2014 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: The various fractions of Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.)  barks as Ethanolic (ETF), ethyl acetate (EAF), chloroform(CLF) and pet ether (PTF) fractions-were obtained after extraction were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The antioxidant capacity of these fractions were evaluated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay .Total antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ETF, EAF, CLF and PTF  extracts of S. caseolaris were determined.

Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoid, steroid, tannin compounds in large amounts. In DPPH scavenging assay among the extracts, ethanolic fractions exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 4.57 μg /ml .The highest phenolic content was found in EAF extracts (63.00 mg of GAE / g. of dried extract) followed by CLF (36.25 mg of GAE / g. of dried extract) and PTF (26.28 mg of GAE /g. of dried extract). The highest total antioxidant activity was also found in ETF fraction (185 GAE/g of dried sample followed by EAF fraction (99.00GAE/g of dried sample), PTF (84.00 GAE/g of dried sample) and Chloroform (49.00 GAE/g of dried sample).

Conclusion: Our result demonstrates that all the extractives of S. caseolaris have appreciable antioxidant activities. But, further study is necessary to isolate the active compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus against Oral Microflora Associated with Dental Plaque

Sonia V. Ambade, Neelima M. Deshpande

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i430143

Aims: Dental biofilms are complex, multi-species microorganism communities that inhabit the oral cavity in the form of dental plaque which causes dental caries and periodontal diseases. The present study aims to explore the potential of Lemon Grass Essential Oil (LGEO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus as antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent against the microorganisms responsible for dental plaque.

Study Design: Observational and comparison study.

Place and Duration of Study: Research centre, Department of Microbiology, Abasaheb Garware college, Pune, India, between Dec 2012 to Jan 2017.

Methodology: Three bacterial species primarily responsible for the biofilm formation were isolated from dental plaque and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Five most primary colonizer of dental plaque organisms were acquired from the Microbial Type Culture Collection cultures. Antimicrobial as well as antibiofilm activity of LGEO, was determined against these eight biofilm forming microorganism. The antibiofilm activity of LGEO was evaluated against oral flora individually, as well as in consortium.

Results: LGEO displayed excellent antimicrobial activity against eight test organisms associated with dental plaque, representing four genera namely Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus and Candida. MIC of LGEO for all test organisms was determined as 1.5% (v/v). The LGEO was found to exhibit as high as 76% biofilm inhibitory activity even in the consortium, where the biofilm formation sometimes has been noted to be comparatively more than that of the individual organism, making LGEO a very promising antibiofilm agent.

Conclusion: LGEO present in rampantly grown plant, Cymbopogon citratus, has remarkable antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against the dental plaque organism and thus can be the economical, convenient, natural and nontoxic herbal material to effectively control the oral microflora associated with dental plaque.