Open Access Case study

Nutritional, Spectral and Thermal Characteristic of Lamiaceae Seeds

Pravin Kumar Sahu, Suryakant Chakradhari, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Jesús Martín-Gil, Erick K. Towett, Pablo Martín-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330133

Aims: Species of the family Lamiaceae possess a rich tradition of use for flavoring and medicinal purposes. This paper focusses on the nutritional and thermal characteristics of the seeds from eight species belonging to this family: Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm., Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit., Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br., Ocimum americanum L., Ocimum sanctum L. (Rama Tulsi), Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Krishna Tulsi), Origanum vulgare L. and Tectona grandis L.f.

Methodology: The oil, starch, total polyphenol, flavonoid and mineral contents for aforementioned seeds were determined. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to assess the phytoconstituents. Thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric analyses (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were performed to analyze the decomposition patterns.

Results: The concentrations of oil, starch, total polyphenol, flavonoids and minerals for the seeds from the eight plants under study ranged from 11.8 to 50.4%, from 0.22 to 1.84%, from 295 to 5842 mg/kg, from 1660 to 12680 mg/kg and from 11756 to 33927 mg/kg, respectively. Unsaturated oils, polyphenols and lignin were recognized by vibrational spectroscopy. The sequence of thermal effects in the seed pyrolysis process above 100°C have been put in relation to seed protein crystallization (endotherm at 200°C), oxidation reactions and degradation of hemicellulose and other fiber components (at around 300°C), and decomposition of polyunsaturated (at 357°C) and mono-unsaturated (at 391°C) triglycerides.

Conclusion: Lamiaceae seeds are potential food alternatives to cereals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic and Mineral Characteristics of Seed Coats and Kernels from 24 Species from Raipur Area, India

Pravin Kumar Sahu, Suryakant Chakradhari, Manas Kanti Deb, Khageshwar S. Patel, Erick K. Towett, Pablo Martín-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330134

Aims: The objective of the present work is the investigation of the physicochemical characteristics of seed coats and kernels from 24 species with medicinal and food applications.

Methodology: Seeds from 24 species (2 herbs, 11 vines and 11 trees), belonging to 13 families, were sampled in Raipur (India) in 2017. The collected seeds were dried and weighed, after which seed coats were manually peeled and separately weighed. Phenolic and mineral contents in the seed coats and kernels were analyzed by spectrophotometric and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques, respectively.

Results: The seed coat fraction represented from 12% to 95% of the seed mass, depending on the species. The concentrations of total polyphenols, flavonoids and minerals in the seed coats varied from 1800 to 32300 mg/kg, from 1200 to 26900 mg/kg, and from 5876 to 36499 mg/kg, respectively. In the seed kernels, TPh, Fla and minerals ranged from 780 to 31760 mg/kg, from 300 to 12020 mg/kg, and from 12595 to 40810 mg/kg, respectively. P, S, K, Mg, Ca and Fe were found to be the main macro- and micro-elements. Seed coats from Loganiaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Lauraceae and Rutaceae families featured the highest total polyphenol contents, and those from Lauraceae and Rutaceae families showed the highest flavonoid concentrations. The highest total mineral contents corresponded to seed coats from Lauraceae, Rutaceae and Euphorbiaceae families.

Conclusion: Indian-laurel and curry tree stand out as promising phytochemical and nutrient sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Phytochemical and Anticancer Activities of Epiphytic Orchid Aerides odorata Lour.

Jhansi Katta, Venkatesh Rampilla, S. M. Khasim

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330135

Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical composition and anticancer activities of leaf extract of Aerides odorata Lour., a widely distributed epiphytic herb found in the Eastern Ghats of Vizianagram district.

Methodology: The solvents like n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were used to extract dried leaf material of A. odorata. These extracts were analysed for phytochemical constituents by GC-MS analysis and in vitro anticancer activity was done against two cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa cell line) by using MTT assay.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis determines presence of 15 compounds in ethyl acetate and 14 compounds in methanol extracts respectively. Among                    two extracts a total 13 compounds have anticancer activity. Both the solvent extracts exhibit significant cancer cell growth inhibition with IC50 value ranging between 26.211 µg/mL to 59.061 µg/mL.

Conclusion: Methanol about the best solvent and its activity. Our result showed A. odorata is a promising source of anticancer drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antimicrobial Study of the Root and Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus sycomorus Linn

I. Toma, D. Dahiru, M. A. Madusolumou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330136

This study was conducted to carryout preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic root and stem bark extracts of Ficus sycomorus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis for tannins, saponin, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, and reducing sugar was done using standard methods. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against four micro- organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentrae, and Salmonella typhi. Agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial studies. Phytochemical screening of both root and stem bark aqueous extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponin, terpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloids,  glycoside, steroid, reducing sugar, and phenol. Glycoside was not detected in both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the root bark. The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the aqueous root extract have higher antimicrobial activity ranging from (2-12 mm) on the tested microorganisms than aqueous stem bark extract (3-9 mm), while for ethanol extract both stem and root bark extract has almost the same effect or antimicrobial activity on the tested pathogens ranging from (2-15 mm) which is having higher activity compared to the aqueous extracts. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of both the extracts were found to be 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL respectively.  From this study, it can, therefore, be concluded that the root and stem bark extract is a potential antimicrobial agent which support the claim of the traditional users of this plant in herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases that are of microbial origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Polyphenols and Mineral Contents in Three Medicinal Weeds

Yaman Kumar Sahu, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Pablo Martín-Ramos, Erick K. Towett

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330137

Aims: Common weeds Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser, Euphorbia rothiana Spreng. and Schoenoplectiella articulata (L.) Lye are used for food, medicinal, green biofertilizer and biosorbent applications. In this work, their polyphenol and mineral contents have been characterized.

Methodology: Samples from aforementioned three plants were manually collected in Raipur city (CG, India) and processed for the analyses. Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride were used for the spectrophotometric determination of polyphenols. The mineral contents were quantified by X-ray fluorescence.

Results: The total concentration of 20 elements (viz. P, S, Cl, As, Se, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Mo and Pb), total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the leaves ranged from 46372 to 71501, from 47877 to 73791 and from 1950 to 9400 mg/kg, respectively. Remarkable concentrations of several nutrients (P, S, Cl, K, Mg, Ca and Fe) were observed.

Conclusion: The biomass from medicinal weeds R. palustris, E. rothiana and S. articulata featured very high K, Ca and Fe contents. Other nutrients (polyphenols, flavonoids, P, S, Cl and Mg) were identified at moderate levels. These species may hold promise as bioindicators.