Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Dpph Free Radical Scavenging Activity of 25 Kinds of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants

LI Pei-Xia, HE Dong-Hao, GONG Meng-Yu, Shun Yuan-Feng, LI Meng-Lin, Huang Yi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i230129

Aims: To determine and compare the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extract of 25 kinds of traditional chinese medicinal plants.

Results: The ethanol extract of 4 kinds of medicinal herbs had the strongest scavenging activity. They were Magnolia officinalis, Rheum officinale, Psoralea corylifolia and Radix Bupleuri. In addtion, Rheum laciniatum, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Magnolia officinalis and Salvia miltiorrhiza had the strongest scavenging activity of their water extract. On the basis of the above comparison, we evaluated EC50 and total phenolic content of their ethanol extract. The EC50 of  Magnolia officinalis, Rheum officinale, Psoralea corylifolia and Radix Bupleuri were 2.75mg·mL-1, 11.82mg·mL-1, 25.22mg·mL-1and 42.67mg·mL-1. The total phenlic content of them were 4.80μg·L-1 , 1.19μg·L-1, 1.07μg·L-1 and 0.75μg·L-1, respectively.

Conclusion: The results showed the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenol content. Furthermore, the reaction time of the DPPH test affected the free radical scavenging, which reflected the difference of the extract component would impact the test method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Containers on the Microbial Load of Domestic Water from Three Sources Treated with Moringa oleifera and Citrullus lanatus Seed Powders

Oha Ndubuisi, Ijeoma Iheukwumere, Hope C. Okereke, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i230130

Aim: The effect of storage containers on the microbial load of domestic water from three sources treated with Moringa oleifera and Citrullus lanatus seed powders in Lekwesi, Abia State was assessed.

Study Design: The jar test method was used for the treatments. One gram (1.0g) each of the plant seed (Moringa oleifera and water melon seeds) was weighed and was added separately into 1000 ml of water samples in the different storage containers (clay lined pots, iron/steel tanks and polypyrene plastic drums, respectively). The mixture was stirred rapidly for 3 minutes and allowed to stand undisturbed for 1 hour, after which the top water was decanted.

Place and Duration of Study: Advanced Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Gregory University Uturu, from May to July, 2018.

Methodology: Tenfold serial dilutions was used for processing of all the water samples, after which the volume of exactly 0.5ml of the water sample was planted on the media using the spread plate method and incubated appropriately and other standard microbiological methods were employed to determine microbial loads.

Results: The river water samples had the highest microbial load of 1.2x103-2.0x108cfu/ml and were reduced to 1.8x107cfu/ml and 1.8x108cfu/ml by M. oleifera and C. lanatus seed powders after an hour of storage respectively. The well water samples had the least microbial counts of 0.9 x101-1.2 x104 cfu/ml, and were reduced to 0.5x101cfu/ml and 5.9 x103cfu/ml by M. oleifera and C. lanatus seed powders respectively.  The potential pathogenic bacteria (TPPB) were reduced to 3.0 x102cfu/ml by M. oleifera, while C. lanatus was unable to reduce the TPPB after an hour. The microbial load decreased constantly within 24h in the various storage containers (steel, clay and plastic), but increased steadily from 72h to the 336h of post storage. The clay-lined and iron-steel pots maintained the same microbial counts after 4h post storage, but differed significantly after 24h, while the polypyrene plastic drum had the highest microbial count. There was absence of TPPB and Total Faecal Coliform Count (TFCC) in the well water samples after the treatment with M. oleifera.

Conclusion: M. oleifera was found to be a better water treatment than C. lanatus, while the clay-lined pot served as the best domestic water storage container.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Protein, Bilirubin and AST Levels in Rat Models Treated with Ethanolic Extract of Eleusine coracana during Arsenic Trioxide Induced Hepatotoxicity

Oyedotun M. Oyeleke, Nosarieme O. Abey, Babatunde J. Oso, Nnenna C. Jackson

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i230131

Eleusine coracana is considered one of the most nutritious cereals. It has different names in local languages. It is known as Ragi in Telugu and Kannada/aariyam in Tamil, and Madua in Hindi and in Nigeria, it is known as Okababa in Yoruba, Dawa in Hausa, etc. This study sought to investigate the protective ability of ethanolic extracts of Eleusine coracana in Arsenic trioxide induced hepatotoxicity using rat models. Animals were grouped into four (4). Group A received only distilled water, in group B,C and D hepatotoxicity was induced using 5 mg/dl Arsenic Trioxide solution for 14 days, followed by treatment in group C and D daily with 200 mg and 500 mg per kg body weight respectively for 14 days, and changes in body weight and Liver Function parameters were determined. Eleusine coracana contains Tannins, phlobatannins,Falavonoids and Terpenoids but not Steriods and Saponins, Eleusine treated groups had a significant decrease in the organ-body weight index. The mean weight and Total Protein was significantly reduced in the intoxicated-untreated group (group B). The AST, direct and total Bilirubin level was significantly higher in group B compared to control and other treated groups. Eleusine cocarna as a plant and source of food contains certain phytochemicals which are capable of managing hepatic cell injury, this serve as a point for pharmacological intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploratory Studies on Occurrence and Potential Benefits of High Fruit Yielding Reproductive Phenophasic Variants of Pithecellobium dulce in Augmenting Fruit Based Semi-arid Agro Forestry Systems

Jai Prakash Narayan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i230132

Background: Pithecellobium dulce is a multipurpose legume tree species of high ecological significance. Several reports indicate existence of huge genetic diversity within the natural population of the species. Various morphological parameters have been used to assess intra species genetic diversity, however, there is no report available so far on diversities in reproductive phenology of P. dulce of semi-arid or arid climate.

Methods: The present paper is based on assessment of diversity in flowering phenophases through construction of phenological calendar incorporating temporally observable morpho-phenotypic descriptors for reproductive behaviour of individual trees comprising natural population of the species at designated study sites during a period of three years. The study was carried out during September, 2015 and March, 2019 at Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. Data were periodically obtained and statistically analyzed.

Results: Majority of trees of flowering stage (89.94%) exhibited normal or winter blooms in which flowering was initiated in almost synchronized manner during December; 10.05% of normal blooming trees inconsistently showed additional early or autumn blooms during either September or October or November; 2.58% of trees exhibited early blooms in which flowering was consistently initiated in the month of September in addition to normal blooms. The overall production and availability of fresh fruits in early-cum-normal episodic blooming trees were greater as compared to only normal blooming trees. Though, the numerical fruit productivity in winter blooms was superior to autumn, the pomometric characteristics were inferior in former in early-cum-normal episodic blooming trees.

Conclusion: The methodology is a novel experimental approach to assess diversities in reproductive phenology of seed raised population of high value fruit bearing economically important tree species. The present work explores agronomically valuable variants of P. dulce and also reports causes of appearance of persistent fruits and sporadic in-situ germination of seeds. Based on above findings, the paper also makes evolutionary predictions that how a shift in flowering phenology of P. dulce as exhibited by the elite variants could have long-term implications for reshaping of future landscapes of semi-arid or arid climate. Conclusively, Winter to autumn phenophasic shift in flowering in P. dulce is economically productive, evolutionarily progressive, and environmentally well cued partial retrieval under semi-arid conditions. Moreover, the phenophasic variants could serve as candidate plus trees that deserve out of the season floral management and clonal propagation, thereby the species may get a fillip to status up gradation from minor fruits to major fruit category.

Open Access Review Article

Reversal of Hypermethylation in Tumor Suppressor Genes Using Phytochemicals in Cervical Cancer

Saloni ., Archita Sharma, Runjhun Mathur, Abhimanyu Kumar Jha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i230128

Cervical cancer is most familiar neoplasm among women worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are common treatments, however high stage tumors have frequently poor prognosis. HPV 16 and 18 are major etiological factors for cervical cancer. Likewise, epigenetics is the study of inherited changes and modulated gene expression without alteration in DNA sequences. In mammals epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA.

Phytochemicals are mainly contained in fruits, seeds, and vegetables as well as in foods supplements. Numerous dietary compounds exhibit potent anti-tumor activities through the reversion of epigenetic alterations associated to oncogenes activation and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and HeLa, demethylation of the tumour suppressor genes such as RARβ2, MGMT, RASSF1A, DAPK etc. Reversal of hypermethylated genes as a tumor-suppressor gene, is related to inhibition of cell proliferation, development and differentiation. The impact of phytochemicals lead to the reversal of hypermethylation which may help to cure cervical cancer. This study concludes the effect of phytochemicals on genetic and epigenetic modifications and reveals how these modifications help to prevent various types of cancers and improve health outcomes.