Open Access Short Research Article

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of a Blend of Herbal Extracts Taken Once Per Day for Weight Loss in Healthy Volunteers

Eli Kassis

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i130127

Aims: We previously demonstrated that a blend of herbal extracts (Weighlevel®; a mixture of extracts from the leaves of Alchemilla vulgaris, Olea europaea, Mentha longifolia and from the seeds of Cuminum cyminum) taken 3 times per day produces weight loss in preclinical and clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a new slow-release formulation (Weighlevel® One) taken once per day on change in body weight and related measures.

Study Design:  Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Place and Duration of Study: Health Clinics in Copenhagen, Denmark between 7 January 2016 and 5 March 2016.

Methodology: Thirty-six adult subjects were randomized to consume the herbal blend (n = 20) or placebo (n = 16) once per day for 8 weeks. Weight and waist circumference were assessed weekly. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in body weight for the herbal blend group compared with placebo. Secondary assessments included waist circumference, appetite, craving, bowel health, and safety and tolerability.

Results: After 8 weeks, the herbal blend group lost an average of 3.7 kg (95% CI of 3.0 to 4.5 kg); whereas the placebo group lost 0.1 kg (95% CI of -0.7 to 1.0 kg). This difference in mean weight loss between the herbal blend and placebo groups was statistically significant (P <.001). A statistically significant reduction in waist circumference was also observed for the herbal blend compared with placebo (P <.001). The herbal blend was well tolerated; no adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Daily administration of this blend of herbal extracts, administered once daily, may produce weight loss.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Caesalpinioideae Seeds

Suryakant Chakradhari, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Erick K. Towett, Jesús Martín-Gil, Pablo Martín-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i130123

Aims: Caesalpinioideae species have great medicinal and food values. In this work, six Caesalpinioideae species that grow abundantly in central India were selected for chemical investigation: Delonix regia, Entada gigas, Leucaena leucocephala, Mimosa pudica, Parkia javanica and Senna siamea. The objective of the present work is to describe the phytochemical and mineral composition and the bioaccumulation potentialities of the seeds from aforementioned species.

Methodology: Spectrophotometric, enzymatic and X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometric techniques were used for the quantification of polyphenols, starch and mineral contents, respectively.

Results: The sum of the total concentrations of 17 macro- and micronutrients (P, S, Cl, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo and Pb), oil, protein and total starch in the six seeds were in the 20253-78489 mg/kg, 3.1-30.1%, 52.9-91.5% and 5.4–41.0% range, respectively. The highest concentrations of Fe, oil and phenolics were observed in M. pudica seeds. Both thermal and spectral characteristics allowed to differentiate M. pudica and P. javanica seeds (with the highest caloric contents) from the seeds from the other species.

Conclusion: The selected Caesalpinioideae seeds are potential sources of the nutrients (i.e., P, S, K, Mg, Ca and Fe) and polyphenols, which are needed for biological metabolism and human health. The presence of heavy metals was well below safety limits, enabling their medicinal uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Two Selected Plants (Verononia amygdalina and Jatropha gossypifolia)

O. A. Jeje, A. O. Ileola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i130124

Chemical analysis were carried out to investigate the bioactive constituents of Vernonia amygdalina and Jatropha gossypifolia and to determine the quality of saponin, alkaloid, and tannin contents of the selected plants. In comparing the bioactive constituents of Vernonia amygdalina and Jatropha gossypifolia, the results showed that there were significant presence of alkaloids, streoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, glycosides and reducing sugar in both plants while some were absent such as cardiac glycosides, hydrolysable tannin, phlobatannin, terpenoids, polysaccharide/starch and coumarin. The result also revealed the concentration of some of the bioactive compounds such as saponins 1.103 g/dm3 in Vernonia amygdalina compare with 1.079 g/dm3 in Jatropha gossypifolia. Tannins 26.48 g/dm3 in Vernonia amygdalina, 24.12 g/dm3 in Jatropha gossypifolia and alkaloids; 0.580 g/dm3 in Vernonia amygdalina, 0.7585 g/dm3 in Jatropha gossypifolia. The bioactive compounds detected in these plants are of therapeutic importance and their presence indicates the beneficial effects of the plants and also supports the use of these plants in ethno-medicine for the management of various ailments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Abrus precatorius L. Seeds

Suryakant Chakradhari, Khageshwar S. Patel, Erick K. Towett, Pablo Martín-Ramos, Adam Gnatowski

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i130125

Aims: A. precatorius seed powder is traditionally used in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicine. The objective of present work is to describe the oil, starch, protein, polyphenol and mineral composition of A. precatorius seeds.

Methodology: Legumes from A. precatorius were collected, and seeds were manually separated. Dried seeds in powder form were employed for the various analyses: solvent extraction was used for elucidation of the oil percentage value; starch content was determined by the enzymatic method; total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were spectrophotometrically analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride as the color developing reagents, respectively; and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for the mineral contents assessment.

Results: The seed kernel consisted of stored oil (3.2%), protein (92.0%) and starch (4.8%). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were 24710 and 2520 mg/kg (dw). A remarkably high content of polyphenols was observed in the seed coat and the seed pod. P, S and (mainly) K nutrients were hyper-accumulated in the seed kernel. The seeds showed a glass transition at -21°C, two endothermic peaks at 109°C (dehydration and protein unfolding) and at 209°C, and a calorific value (~406 kcal/100 g dw) that exceeded those of Pisum sativum L., Lens culinaris Medik. and other common pulses.

Conclusions: The seed kernel from A. precatorius was mainly composed of stored protein, with low oil and starch contents. High contents of polyphenols, K, Mg, Ca and Fe were found in the seeds. Heavy metals were below the safety limits established for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Minerals, Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoids, Antioxidants and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Sweet Lupinus angustifolius of Palestine

Michel Hanania, Sireen Radwan, Suhair Abu Odeh, Abeer Qumber

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i130126

Aims: To establish the most suitable extraction method for sweet lupine seeds and to determine minerals, phenolic content, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activities.

Study Design: Known and standard experimental procedures are employed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Bethlehem University- Palestine, from January 2019 to March 2019.

Methodology: Seeds were ground and extracted by Soxhlet extractor using ethanol with different percentages (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 95%). Sodium, potassium and ferrous ion content were determined. Resistance to bacteria was performed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while antioxidant activity was determined by FRAP method. Two types of flavonoids were measured: Flavonones and dihydroflavonols via the reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

Results: 50% ethanol resulted in the highest extract residue (18.6%) while 70% and 60% showed the lowest content (10.0% for both). 80% ethanol extracted sample showed the highest content for sodium (56.51 mg Na/g extract), while 60% and 50% ethanol extracts showed the highest content of potassium (2.25 and 2.33 mg K/g extract, respectively). The maximum concentration of ferrous ion was obtained with 70% ethanol (6.854 mg Fe+2/g extract). 95% ethanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (20.24 mg FeSO4/g extract). Similar results were obtained for total phenolic content and flavonoids: 24.60 mg gallic acid/g extract for phenolics and 116.02 mg rutin/g extract for flavonoids. Extracts showed no bacterial activity against both types of bacteria used.

Conclusion: 95% ethanol extracted samples showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest flavonoids and phenolic content. Sweet lupine extract did not perform any antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.