Open Access Original Research Article

Ageing Induced Hyperproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Dysbalance in Enzymatic Link of Antioxidant Defense System of Skin and Therapeutic Efficacy of Artichoke Extract

Galina V. Sukoyan, Nikoloz V. Gongadze, Natalya B. Demina, Veronika V. Golovach, Edisher T. Tsivtsivadze, Alesha D. Bakuridze

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i430118

Skin aging is multitarget persistence processing that immediately involve hyperproduction of free radicals under influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and deterioration in intimal antioxidant defense system. The goal of the study was the evaluation of the anti-oxidant potential of artichoke standartizated extracts, 2%, as a protective strategy against skin age-associated oxidative damage caused by D-galactose (D-gal) in rats. 58 female Wistar rats included in the experimental design. D-gal-induced aging was reproduced in 36 animals of main group, and 12 rats included in control group.  All animals in main group were randomized for 3 groups: I – animals with skin aging reproduced model receive saline, II – animals with skin aging rats receive artichoke extracts (with content of chloroagenic acid 2.0%) in a dose of intradermal injection 0.13 mg/kg and main III group - animals with skin aging receive 1.3 mg/kg artichoke extract twice at weeks during 4 weeks. Influence of artichoke extracts restores skin relative weight and leads to decreasing the rate of generation of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation (LPx), increasing activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reverse ratio SOD/(catalase+GPx) to the production of H2O2 from superoxide dismutation coupling with the decrease ratio of generated O2-/H2O2. Low-dose of intradermally microinjection of artichoke extracts, 2%, activated the enzymatic link in innate antioxidant defense system in D-gal-induced skin aging model and could be recommended for applications in cosmetics as antiaging mesotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Evaluation of Anti-malarial Activity of Stem and Root Extracts of Erythrina abyssinica

Daniel W. Onyango, Jacob O. Midiwo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i430119

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-malarial activity of stem and root extracts of E. abyssinica using the 4-day suppressive in vivo anti-malarial test.

Methodology: Female mice weighing approximately 20±2 g were intra-peritoneally injected with mice passaged Plasmodium berghei parasites. The extracts were then administered orally 2 h post-infection and, subsequently, daily for 4 days. On the 4th day, blood smears were prepared from all the mice, stained with giemsa and parasitaemia as well as chemosuppression determined.

Results: Comparatively, the root extracts exhibited higher chemosuppression than stem extracts and the level of chemosuppression was dose dependent being the highest at 50 mg/kg and lowest at 12.5 mg/kg. Survival time in extract treated and chloroquine treated groups was 2 to 3 fold higher than the –ve control.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the root extracts are more efficacious in suppressing the development of full blown malaria compared to stem extracts and may be a useful candidate in managing malaria in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Spectral Characteristics of Terminalia Plants

Suryakant Chakradhari, Keshaw P. Rajhans, Khageshwar S. Patel, Erick K. Towett, Jesús Martín-Gil, Pablo Martín-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i430120

Aims: Terminalia spp. is medicinal plants that belong to Combretaceae family, widely used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. In this work, the nutritional constituents of the leaves, seed kernel and seed coat from four Terminalia species (T. arjuna, T. bellirica, T. catappa and T. chebula) are reported.

Methodology: Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were analyzed spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride as reagents, respectively; mineral contents were quantified by using X-ray fluorescence; and the functional groups of the phytochemicals were investigated by infrared spectroscopy.

Results: The total concentration of 20 macro- and micronutrients and heavy metals (viz. P, S, Cl, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, As and Pb), and the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the seed kernels ranged from 1754 to 65521 mg/kg, from 2150 to 51100 mg/kg and from 63 to 42300 mg/kg, respectively. Polyphenol and mineral contents for the Terminalia spp. seed coats and leaves were also determined. The enrichment in each of aforementioned elements with respect to the soil content was calculated. The vibrational spectra of the leaves and seed coats agreed with a composition rich in lignin, hemicellulose, cutin, pectin and flavonoids, while those of the seed kernels were in accordance with the presence of unsaturated oils, protein, and fiber.

Conclusion: Various parts of the four Terminalia species under study (T. arjuna, T. bellirica, T. catappa and T. chebula) featured high contents of nutrients and polyphenols needed for biological metabolism and human health. In addition, heavy metals were only present at traces level, indicating that these Terminalia plants would be safe for medicinal uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) Stem-bark Hydromethanolic Extract Abrogates a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor - Induced Multifocal Toxicity in Albino Rats

Lucky L. Nwidu, Yibala I. Oboma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i430121

Objective: Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) stem-bark enjoys wide patronage in ethnomedicine due to multiplicity of usage. Acute and subacute hematological and biochemical toxicity studies are available in literature but none underpins its ameliorative effect with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC), valproic acid (VPA) which mediates multifocal toxicity in different histological milieu.

Methods: Subacute exposure of experimental albino rats with a high dose of valproic acid (500 mg/kg) was executed orally one hour before post-treatment with Nauclea latifolia stem-bark (NLS) extract in three doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and with another group of rats with reference drug, vinpocetine, 25 mg/kg daily for 28 consecutive days after which hematological and biochemical analyses were executed.  The liver, kidney and lungs were abstracted for histopathological evaluation.

Results: The HDAC inhibitor, Valproic acids induced multifocal biochemical insults on liver function enzymes, lipid profiles, electrolytes and kidney function which were dose- dependently and significantly (P < 0.05 – 0.001) abrogated by the varying doses of administered NLS extract. On the histology the NLS extract effects corroborated the biochemical study in the liver and kidney. The NLS did not demonstrate significant toxicological impingement on the hematology and did not alter VPA-induced histomorphological injury in the lungs cytoarchitecture. The reference drug, vinpocetine was unresponsive to VPA-induced alteration in all the tissues investigated in the administered posology.

Conclusion: The NLS extract was effective in abrogating toxicological insults in the liver and kidney but not in the lungs. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of pharmacological effects of NLS extract and the differential in tissue response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Mineral Characteristics of Some Selected Sapotaceae Plants

Suryakant Chakradhari, Manas Kanti Deb, Khageshwar Singh Patel, Jesús Martín-Gil, Erick K. Towett, Pablo Martín-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i430122

Aims: To study the spectral and thermal characteristics, and the oil, starch, polyphenol and mineral contents of seeds and leaves from three Sapotaceae species, provided that trees and shrubs of this family are an important source of nutritional and functional products.

Methodology: Leaves and seeds from three Sapotaceae plants, namely Moa tree (Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel.), Chico sapote (Manilkara zapota (Linn.) van Royen) and Spanish cherry (Mimusops elengi Linn.), were collected in the Raipur area of Chhattisgarh, India. Their physicochemical characterization (including oil, polyphenol, starch and mineral contents; functional groups; and thermal degradation patterns) was carried out by using various techniques, viz. solvent extraction, spectrophotometry, enzymatic digestion, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively.

Results: The three Sapotaceae seeds under study were found to contain polyphenol, mineral, starch and oil contents in the 1850–23180 mg/kg, 11390–19385 mg/kg, 6.7–9.1% and 9.8-54.1% range, respectively. Their leaves and seed coats featured total phenolic contents in the 24260–28600 mg/kg and 7810–23060 mg/kg range, respectively, and mineral contents in the 8823–27462 mg/kg and 3619–15884 mg/kg range, respectively. The functional groups of the phytochemicals, studied by FTIR, were assigned. Their thermal decomposition patterns, which involved loss of water and volatile organic compounds, proteins, oil and starch/cellulose, were also described.

Conclusion: The Sapotaceae leaves, seed coat, kernel and cake are enriched with very high contents of starch, proteins, polyphenols and minerals, suggesting their possible valorization in human food, animal feeding and as herbal medicines.