Open Access Original Research Article

Chronic Oral Administration of Ocimum gratissimum Leaf Extract Induced Gastrointestinal Necrosis in Treated Albino Rats

M. U. Udoha, N. J. Okolie, S. N. Ijioma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i330113

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect on of Ocimum gratissimum leaves extract on the histology of the gastrointestinal tract in rats.

Study Design: Adult rats of both sexes were used for the work. The study was carried out at the Departments of Physiology and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria between September 2014 and January, 2015.

Methodology: Fifty adult albino rats and 35 Mice were used for the study. The mice were used for acute toxicity study while the rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats each and were used for the histological study. Groups 2-5 were assigned different dose levels of OGLE in the order 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively while group 1 was given only feed and water. Treatment was given by the oral route and lasted for 28 days.

Results: Phytochemical compounds identified in the extract include protein and carbohydrate which occurred in high amounts, tannins, flavonoids and glycosides in moderate quantities, saponins, steroids and phenolic compounds in low amounts while tannins and alkaloids were absent. An LD50 and ED50 values of 2075 mg/kg and 850 mg/kg body weight respectively were obtained for the extract with a Therapeutic Index value of 2.44. Chronic oral administration of the extract also caused various degrees of histological changes in the gastrointestinal tract in all treated animals with significant erosions of the mucosa and submucosa. The gastrointesinal necrosis produced by Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract after long term treatment was dose dependent with 100 mg/kg inducing only mild necrosis of the villi, 200 mg/kg, a higher necrosis of the villi, while 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg induced severe necrosis of both the villi and the intestinal mucosa.

Conclusion: Results obtained from this study therefore suggest that Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract is rich in bioactive compounds and may be well tolerated at low to moderate doses during short term treatment but may cause gastrointestinal erosions when used continuously over a long period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-bacterial Effect of Chrysophyllum albidum Phyto Extract

I. A. Hassan, I. Abdulraheem, H. O. Emun, O. M. Omole

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i330114

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Chrysophyllum albidum leaves extract on selected Gastro-instestinal bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysentariae, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens.

Methodology: The leaves were extracted using ethanol, methanol and distilled water; the concentration of the extracts employed were 100 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 500 mg/ml respectively; however the   leaf extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum were screened for anti-microbial activity using the in vitro cup-plate method of agar diffusion technique with concentration of 10-5cells/ml of the selected bacteria. Simultaneously, 30 µg tetracycline and 30 µg metronidazole were used as positive control.

Results: The result showed that the most active among them is Tetracycline; followed by ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, methanolic extract and metronidazole extract respectively on the tested bacteria.

Conclusion: This research justifies the traditional use of the leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum for the therapeutic purposes; hence can be commercialized by pharmaceutical outfit; if not for anything but its availability and readily for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity, Ethnobotanical Potential and Sustainability Assessment of Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Cancer in Boyo Division, North-West Region, Cameroon

Marie-Louise Avana-Tientcheu, Christian Herve Sime, Roger Tsobou, Zacharie Tchoundjeu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i330115

Aims: Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. Therefore, the knowledge on medicinal plants used to cure human cancer could be of great importance for their widespread use and scientific validation. The present study records information on anticancer plants in Boyo Division, in the western highland of Cameroon.

Methods: Thirty traditional healers, were interviewed to document their know-how on the type of human cancer allegedly cured, the plant species used as well as their use pattern. Guided field walks were made to the collection sites for plant and its habitat characterization as well as herbarium voucher collection. Ethnobotanical quantitative tools were used to analyze and summarize collected data. Sustainability of harvest was assessed using a vulnerability index based on seven parameters. 

Results: A total of 25 medicinal plants cited were identified as belonging to 13 families and 23 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (28%), Lamiaceae (16%), Fabaceae (12%) and Acanthaceae (8%). Out of the seven categories of cancer diseases reported, the highest number of plants species were reported to treat stomach, pancreas, liver, skin and breast cancers, with informant consensus factor (ICF) ranging from 0.79 to 0.82. Leaves (60%) and bark (20%) were the major plant parts used mostly in form of decoction (45.45%) and concoction (38.18%). The result of Relative frequency citations (RFCs) revealed that 9 of the 25 plants species cited were the most frequently used with fidelity levels ranging from 92% (Geniosporum rotundifolium and Ocimum tenuiflorum Aframomum melegueta and Entada abyssinica) to 100% (Coleus blumei, Ocimum gratissimum, Eremomastax speciosa, and Dichrocephala integrifolia). Six species were assessed as vulnerable (Vi ≥ 2), while two species were rated as highly vulnerable namely G. rotundifolium (Vi = 2.71) and E. abyssinica (Vi = 2.85).

Conclusion: New traditionally effective anticancer plants were identified in the present study, some of which were already vulnerable for exploitation in their actual habitat. Plants with high ICF, RFCs and FL values should be subjected to further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for scientific validation while those with high Vulnerability index should be recommended for participatory domestication by the main users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Leaves of Saba senegalensis (A.DC) Pichon (Apocynaceae)

Mohamed Bonewendé Belemlilga, Tata Kady Traoré, Gilchrist A. L. Boly, Noufou Ouédraogo, Aristide Traoré, Marius Lompo, Sylvin Ouédraogo, Innocent Pierre Guissou

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i330116

Aims: To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of extracts of Saba senegalensis leaves.

Study Design: In vitro antioxidant assay and in vivo anti-inflammatory, analgesic assay of Saba senegalensis extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Saba senegalensis leaves, were collected in the Centre Region of Burkina Faso, in June–July 2015. The experiments were conducted at the department of Medicine and Traditional Pharmacopeia-Pharmacy (MEPHATRA-PH) of Institute of Research in Health Science (IRSS).

Methodology: The anti-oedematous tests with carrageenan and the analgesic with acetic acid and investigate effect on isolated organ were carried out. The standards were acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol.

Results: After five hours of carrageenan-induced edema test, aqueous decoction (AD) presented better inhibition on all measure. In fact, at the different doses of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and                600 mg/kg it presented percentages of inhibitions respectively of 30.81%, 62.27% and 72.71%. For the analgesic test, the hydroethanol macerate (HEM) showed a better pain reduction compared to the AD with a maximum effect of 77.28% at 400 mg/kg. Antioxidant activity with AD and his fractions shows that AD showed a better activity for the DPPH assay with an IC50 of 1.74 ±                0.10 μg/mL and a reducing power of 59.53 ± 2.16 mmol ET/g Sample. For HEM and his fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction (FHEM-AcOEt) showed a better IC50 of 0.18 ± 0.01 μg/mL for the DPPH test and dichloromethane fraction (FHEM-DCM) a reducing power agent of 88.88 ± 2.65 mmol ET/g Sample. All fractions were endowed with antioxidant properties by both methods.

Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the presence of phenolic and terpenoid compounds could explain the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of these extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of a Herbal Formulation Used in the Treatment of Malaria

Bernard K. Turkson, M. L. K. Mensah, Kwame Sarpong

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i330117

Malaria is a public health problem and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in most tropical and subtropical countries. A rapid spread of malarial disease globally due to treatment failure has led to an urgent need for new effective antimalarials which medicinal plants have contributed to in medicine.

The objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of Mist Amen Fevermix which is a decoction of the stem bark of Morinda lucida and Parinari robusta in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in humans, at the Tafo Government Hospital, Kumasi.

Clinically established malaria in male and female patients aged, 15-60 years were treated with Mist Amen Fevermix, at the specified dose of 45 mls (0.45 g) three times daily for six days.

A total of 50 patients were diagnosed with malaria disease. At the randomization visit, a detailed medical history was obtained and the patients underwent laboratory investigation was done at entry and after completing the study.

All the 50 patients completed the study and there was a statistically significant difference between the mean levels of malaria parasite load recorded 28 indicating a significant effectiveness of Mist Amen Fevermix used by the patients. Parasitaemia clearance was 82.35% within the first three days in clients who responded positively to treatment.

Results of the study suggest that Mist Amen Fevermix is an effective herbal antimalarial agent when used as specified by the manufacturer.