Open Access Short communication

Inhibitory Effect of the Stem Bark Extracts of Albizia chevalieri Harms on the Activity of Alpha-glucosidase Obtained from Aspergillus niger

Abdulhafiz Damilola Oso, Idris Bello, Yusuf Sa’idu, Onu Andrew

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i230107

The aim of the current study is to evaluate the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by stem bark extract of Albizia chevalieri. The activity of alpha glucosidase was assayed in vitro using 50 mM acetate buffer pH 6.0 (prepared from acetic acid and sodium acetate) and various concentration of maltose (0.5 mM to 10 mM). Five test tubes, labeled TA – TE, each containing 1.5 ml of acetate buffer, 0.5 ml of alpha glucosidase and 0.5 ml of a known concentration of plant extract and control tubes (CA – CE) were assessed for Alpha glucosidase activity. The results showed that hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity. The results further indicated that the extracts act by competitive inhibition with inhibition constant of 232 mg/ml, 157 mg/ml and 67 mg/ml for hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. The value for the inhibition constants shows that there is a strong binding of the enzyme to the inhibitor as the polarity of solvent increases. The inhibitory activity of Albizia chevalieri may be due one or more of the phytochemicals present in the extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Anthocleista djalonensis Root Extracts against Cancer Cells

Ijeoma Solomon Okoro, Terrumum Amom Tor-Anyiin, John Ogbaji Igoli, Muluh Emmanuel Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i230108

Aim: Several medicinal uses have been reported for Anthocleista djalonensis and many types of pure compounds have been isolated. However, the anti-cancer activity of this plant has not been proven. The aim of this study was to screen for the phytochemicals present in the rootn-hexane, ethyl acetate, and acetone extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, and to evaluate its anticancer potential against human cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa cells) in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Department of Organic Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. The duration period was between March and July, 2016.

Methodology: Extracts were prepared by soaking the root powder in the respective solvents with continuous stirring; The extracts were filtered and evaporated to remove the solvents. The extracts were then screened for phytocompounds by preliminary screening methods. Anti-cancer potential was carried out by a Resazurin assay and CC50 values were determined.

Results: The extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, glucoside, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, sterols. All extracts demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cells.

Conclusion: The hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed anticancer property. The roots extracts of Anthocleista djalonesis were thus found to possess potential anticancer activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tetrapleura tetraptera Extract Inhibited Luteinizing Hormone and Estrogen Secretion in Clomiphene Citrate Treated Female Wistar Albino Rats

E. O. Agbai, C. O. Nwanegwo, C. J. Njoku, P. C. Onyebuagu, J. Ekezie, A. C. Nwafor, C. C. Eke

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6,
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i230109

Tetrapleura tetraptera stem bark has been reported to cause inhibition of luteinizing hormone release in cultured rat pituitary cells. Hence, we investigated the effects of Tetraptera tetrapleura pod extract on follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol, progesterone and estrogen. Thirty non-pregnant female wistar albino rats were divided into group A - D. Group A rats were used as Control. Group B rats were administered 1 mg/kg/day of clomiphene citrate orally. Group C rats were administered 200 mg/kg of extract only, whereas group D rats were administered 1 mg/kg /day of Clomiphene citrate plus 200 mg/kg of extract. At the end of 14 days experiment, group A, B and D were found in proestrus phase and group C in diestrus phase. FSH and cortisol levels remained unchanged. Group C and D rats produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in LH and estrogen levels in prolonged proestrus and normal diestrus respectively. Progesterone level was significantly high (P < 0.05) in the group C rats. The reduced LH level could be due to the anti-estrogenic effect of extract during proestrus when LH secretion is expected to surge. But co-administration resulted in high progesterone secretion, suggesting extract may have influenced progesterone secretion in group D rats simultaneously administered with clomiphene citrate and extract. The above findings indicated that Tetrapleura tetraptera pod extracts inhibited luteinizing hormone and estrogen even when co-administered with clomiphene citrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-diabetic Effect of Mucuna puriens Extract

N. Nwaji Njemuwa, N. Uduagwu Dickson, A. Elekwa Elizabeth, R. Mgbenka Uchenna, C. Njoku Ogbonnaya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i230110

Aims: To investigate the scientific basis for the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) leaf ethanolic extract using alloxan-induced diabetic rats, DPPH and ABTS assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal University Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria between October 2013 and May 2014.

Methodology: The polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocaltu method and their linear relationship with antioxidant activity was evaluated using linear regression analysis. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2, 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical assay. The active ingredients in the ethanolic extract were isolated using HPLC method. Also the ant-diabetic activity was determined in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic wister rats.  

Results: Ethanol extract showed the highest phenolic content as well as highest antioxidant activity. A strong relationship was found between phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The HPLC analysis indicates the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and (+)-catechin. The ethanolic extract at the concentration of 400 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) increased the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elavated serum lipids and showed more active than the reference drug (metformin).

Conclusion: Based on the obtained result, the antioxidant and anti-diabetic activity demonstrated by Mucuna pruriens leaf extracts provide good evidence to support the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prolonged Administration of Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum Reduces RBC, PCV and Platelet Count but Increases Total WBC and Lymphocyte Counts in Rats

E. O. Aribo, O. E. Ofem, M. E. Moses

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i230111

Background: Ocimum gratissimum is an ethnopharmacological plant with numerous healing potentials. But there is paucity in scientific literature on its impact on the blood cells.

Aim and Objective: The present study was intended to evaluate the dose and time-dependent effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum on some haematological in albino Wistar rats.

Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups. Group 1 was control, groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 450 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1800 mg/kg respectively of the extract daily for 30 days. All rats had free access to water and rat chow.

Results: The result showed a significantly lower RBC count in groups 3 and 4 when compared with control (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). PCV was significantly lower in group 4 than control (p<0.05). Platelet count was significantly lower in group 4 than control (p<0.05) and group 2 (p<0.05). A significant increase in WBC count was observed in groups 2 and 3 when compared with control (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). A significant reduction in neutrophil count was observed in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared with control (p<0.05; p< 0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). There were significant increases in lymphocyte counts in groups 2, 3 and 4 when compared with control (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.01 respectively). There were no significant changes in MCV, MCH and MCHC in the groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum causes reduction in RBC count, PCV, platelet count and neutrophil count but causes increases in total WBC count and lymphocyte count.