Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation and In-vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from the Roots of Selinum vaginatum C. B. Clarke

Pawan Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Mohammad S. Javed, A. K. Tewari, K. S. Bisht

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i130102

Aim: The study was to evaluate the phytogenic chemical compounds and Antifungal Activity of essential oil from roots of Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke, growing in the Himalayan region of Jammu & Kashmir.

Methodology: The essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography & Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in relation with their Kavot indices and mass spectra.

Results: The oil was found completely dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (71.9%) which includes 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (37.5%), khusinol (20.7%), viridiflorol (8.0%), acorenone -B (4.2%) and 14-oxy-α-muurolene (1.1%) whereas δ-cadinene (8.9%), α-copaene (6.8%), germacrene-A (2.5%), and β-caryophyllene (1.3%) were the major compounds among sesquiterpenoids. Monoterpenoids constituted as the minor portion (3.8%) of essential oil. The oil was found almost free from oxygenated monoterpenoids (0.2%). The roots of S. vaginatum are used in folk lore medicines in Jammu & Kashmir. The oil from the roots showed marked antifungal activity. The oil had shown 100% mycelia growth inhibition against A. tenuis, C. graminicola, R. solani and S. sclerotiorum at a concentration of 500 µg/ml, 2000 µg/mL, 2000 µg/mL and 300 µg/mL respectively. However F. oxysporum was found less susceptible to the root oil of S. vaginatum. The IC50 values showed a range from 57.4 µg/mL–74.7 µg/mL as compared to standard fungicides with IC50 values 32.8 µg/mL–98.6 µg/mL. The spore germination inhibition test revealed the root oil as a potent inhibitor with IC50 values as 201.4 µg/mL, 414.7 µg/mL and 784.7 µg/mL for A. tenuis, C. graminicola and F. oxysporum. Conclusion: Our study showed that14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (37.5%), khusinol (20.7%), & viridiflorol (8.0%) are the major components in this oil and possessed potent antifungal activity against test fungal strain, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Fe2+ Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Brain by Extract of Euphorbia heterophylla in vitro

Leye Jonathan Babatola, Oluwakemisola B. Oshanimi, Olanrewaju M. Oluba, Lawrence Okoror, Adewale Agboola Odutuga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i130103

This study is sought to determine the antioxidant activity and protective ability of aqueous and methanol extractible phytochemicals from Euphorbia heterophylla leaves on lipid peroxidation induced in rat brain by pro-oxidant, in vitro. The extracts of the leaves were prepared, and the ability of the extracts is to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rats’ brain, were determined. Thereafter, total phenol content, reducing power (FRAP), Fe (II) chelating, and DPPH* free radical scavenging ability of the extracts was determined and considered as an index of antioxidant activity. The results revealed that the extracts inhibit malondialdehyde (MDA) production in the basal and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidised rats in a dose-dependent manner, [methanol 80.11%, aqueous 70.3%] with the methanol extract (MEE) significantly (P< 0.05) than that of aqueous extract (AEE). The methanol extract (0.74 ± 0.6 mg/g) had higher total phenol contents than the aqueous (0.57 ± 1.2 mg/g); likewise the methanol extract had higher reducing power (0.08 ± 0.2, 0.03 ± 0.1 mg/g), but had no significant difference in Fe (II) chelating ability (EC50= 0.34, 0.36) with DPPH* scavenging ability (EC50=0.075, 0.075). This antioxidant properties and the protective effect of this leaf could be harnessed in the management and prevention of degenerative diseases in association with oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidants and Radical Scavenging Activities of Nigerian Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

J. Olawuni Idowu, A. David Oyinade, S. Bamidele Funminiyi, E. Ogundepo Gbenga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i130104

Aim: To evaluated the antioxidant and radical scavenging ability of three different accessions (TGx-1835-10E, TGx-1987-62F and TGx 1951-3F) of soybean.

Study Design: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant assays: Total phenol, Total flavonoid, Total antioxidant capacity, Ferric reducing antioxidant capacity, Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 2, 2-Diphenyl-2-Picryl-Hydrazyl (DPPH) and Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activities.

Place and Duration: Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (August–December, 2016).

Methodology: Hydroalcoholic crude extracts of TGx-1835-10E, TGx-1987-62F and TGx 1951-3F were obtained through soxhlet apparatus using 80% methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator at 4°C. The crude extract was then subjected to different  antioxidant assays (Total phenol, Total flavonoid, Total antioxidant capacity, Ferric reducing antioxidant capacity, Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability , DPPH and NO radical scavenging activities.) following standard procedures.

Results: The results shows that TGx 1951-3F elicited the highest DPPH and NO radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 2.61± 0.02 mg/ml and 2.58 ± 0.02 mg/ml, compared to TGx-1835-10E and TGx-1987-62F. Similarly, Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability (FIC) of TGx 1951-3F was higher with IC50 value of 1.38 ± 0.07 mg/ml, compared to TGx-1835-10E and TGx-1987-62F with an IC50 of 1.86 ± 0.16 and 2.07 ± 0.16 mg/ml. The reducing power of the three accessions expressed in terms of ascorbic acid equivalent tested using FRAP, TAC and CUPRAC assays showed that TGx 1951-3F has highest antioxidant activity follow by TGx-1835-10E and TGx-1987-62F. This same trend was also observed in antioxidant constituent present in the samples as TGx-1951-3F has higher phenolic and flavonoid content compared to TGx-1835-10E and TGx-1987-62F.

Conclusion: The result of this present study revealed that Accession TGx 1951-3F elicit the highest antioxidant potential nevertheless, accessions TGx-1835-10E and TGx-1987-62F also contain significant amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Consequently, the plant seeds might be an important source of natural antioxidant, and helpful in prevention and management of various diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antifibrin, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Betel Leaves (Piper betel L.)

Kollipara Venkata Manideep, Pattipati Anusha, Mulpuri Ramesh Babu, B. R. S. S. Srinivas Gupta, M. Swathi, V. P. B. Rekha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i130105

Piper betel L. belongs to the family Piperaceae. It has been an important medicinal agent since ages in various traditional and folk systems of medicine. Leaves obtained from the local market were shade dried and powdered. Different solvents were used based on polarity to extract phytochemicals from this powder using a Soxhlet extractor and separated using rotary vacuum evaporator. Thin layer chromatography was run using different solvent systems in different ratios for identifying essential compounds of Piper betel and for standardizing the ratios at which better resolution of compounds taken place. Antimicrobial activities were tested on twelve bacterial and three fungal species. Also, anti fibrin activity was tested on erythrocytes by using the extracts obtained by the plant. The zone of inhibitions formed due to the anti microbial activity were measured and found that mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol were effective. The percentage of clot lysis was found to be appreciable for ethyl acetate extract of the Piper leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Potentials of Methanol Leaf Extracts of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineense

Adetoun Elizabeth Morakinyo, Temitope Adenike Oyedepo, Olufolarin Babarinde, Joy Motunrayo Adelowo, Ayodeji Emmanuel Adepoju, Oluboade Oluokun Oyedapo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2019/v27i130106

Aim: The study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potentials of methanol extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum melegueta leaves with a view to utilizing the plants in the treatment and management of cardiovascular disorders.

Methodology: Twenty-eight healthy albino rats were randomly divided into seven equal groups: Group I received normal saline (2 ml/kg bwt); Group II received a single dose of alloxan(150 mg/kg bwt) intraperitoneally; Group III received  alloxan (150 mg/kg bwt) + glibenclamide (5 mg/kg bwt);Group IV received alloxan (150 mg/kg bwt) +PG (200 mg/kg bwt); Group V received alloxan (150 mg/kg bwt) + PG (400 mg/kg bwt); Group VI received alloxan (150 mg/kg bwt) + AM 200 (mg/kg bwt); Group VII received alloxan (150 mg/kg bwt) + AM (400 mg/kg bwt). The blood glucose level was determined before and after treatment with the extracts. The lipid: (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were estimated using the Randox diagnostic kits.

Results: The results revealed that alloxan was able to induce hyperglycemia at 150 mg/kg bwt and post-treatment with P. guineense and A. melegueta at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/ kg bwt were able to significantly lower the blood glucose level which was quite apparent in AM treated groups. Also, the extracts at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were able to bring a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TC, TG and LDL concentrations when compared to the alloxan treated group with the highest reduction in AM treated groups.

Conclusion: These results revealed that the methanol extract of P. guineense and A. melegueta elicited anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potentials of the extracts with the highest effect observed in A. melegueta treated rats.