Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Roles of Kolaviron Extract from Garcinia kola Seeds against Isoniazid-induced Kidney Damage in Wistar Rats

Oladayo Emmanuel Apalowo, Samson Eyone Musa, Funke Asaolu, Joseph Tosin Apata, Taiwo Oyedeji, Olusegun Olubunmi Babalola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v26i430095

Background: Garcinia kola seeds have been observed to be medically important and kolaviron, a bioflavonoid obtained from the seeds was studied for its biological activities. The study investigated the protective effect of kolaviron extract obtained from the seed of Garcinia kola against isoniazid-induced kidney damage.

Methodology: Kolaviron was extracted from fresh seeds of Garcinia kola (2 kg) using soxhlet extractor and partitioned with chloroform. Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar rats by oral administration of isoniazid (20 mg/kg bwt) while kolaviron was administered on wistar rats an hour before isoniazid administration and lasted for 30 days. Protective effect of kolaviron was measured in the plasma of wistar rats by estimating the levels of key metabolites used as kidney biomarkers which are total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration.

Results: The isoniazid-treated group showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total protein concentration of 3.57 ± 0.12 (mg/dl) while there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in urea, uric acid and creatinine concentrations with values of 70.30 ± 4.77, 55.71 ± 11.15 and 18.04 ± 5.33 (mg/dl) respectively. However, kolaviron-treated group showed a remarkable increase (6.15 ± 0.96) in total protein concentration while urea, uric acid and creatinine concentrations significantly decreased to 45.25 ± 2.29, 35.60 ± 11.01 and 13.28 ± 4.41 (mg/dl) respectively.

Conclusion: Kolaviron extract obtained from Garcinia kola seeds exhibited a remarkable protective effect against kidney damage caused by isoniazid by regulating renal biomarkers and preventing toxic affront of isoniazid. Thus, it may be relatively safe when used therapeutically at this dose in the treatment and management of diseases associated with kidney damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Three Medicinal Plants: Cuscuta reflexa, Cassia tora and Cassia fistula

Nahid Sajia Afrin, Tarannum Tasnim, Meher Nigar Mousumy, Md. Awlad Hossain, Md. Abu Bakar Siddique, Md. Aminul Ahsan, Md. Ahedul Akbor, Koushik Saha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v26i430098

Aim: The current study explores the proximate and elemental contents of three different medicinal plants, namely Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant), Cassia tora (stem) and Cassia fistula (seed pot) that have been grown in Bangladesh.

Methodology: Macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg), micro (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As) elements, present in C. reflexa (Whole plant), C. tora (stem), and C. fistula (seed pod) were analyzed quantitatively by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).

Results: The minerals of the plants were found in substantial amounts (Na: 13763.75-16419.42 ppm, K: 6053.49-25864.92 ppm, Ca: 18912.16-2298.77 ppm, Mg: 1570.25-4602.23 ppm, Fe: 58.99-222.43 ppm, Cu: 3.16-11.61 ppm, Mn: 15.89-54.53 pm, Zn: 0.0367-50.2665 ppm, Ni: 0.9878-4.7186 ppm, Cr: 0.3279-0.8281 ppm, Pb: 0.3590-1.5030 ppm, Cd: 0.0016-0.0068 ppm and As: 0.0148-0.0675 ppm).

Conclusion: It is evident that the investigated medicinal plants are enriched in some macro and micro nutrient, such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe etc which are important for biological metabolism and human health. On the other hand the heavy metals are present in trace amount which indicate the plants are safe for medicinal uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ethanolic Seed Extract of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile of Diabetic Wistar Rats

Deborah Francis, Celestine Ani, Choice Nworgu, Okorie Pamela, Igwe Uzoma, Jide Uzoigwe, Princewill Ugwu, Pamela Anyaeji, Nwachukwu Daniel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6

Aims: This study investigated the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Citrullus lanatus (ESECL) on blood glucose level and lipid profile in Alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

Study Design and Methodology: 30 male adult wistar rats were grouped randomly into six experimental groups of five rats each. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate, dissolved in normal saline, while the normal control group (group 1) was given the vehicle only. Three days after induction of diabetes, were treated further for four weeks with ESECL at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for groups 4, 5, and 6 respectively. Animals in Group 3 were treated with Glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), while group 2 served as the negative control group.

Results: Administration of ESECL caused significant decrease in blood glucose levels in groups 4, 5 and 6 compared to rats of group 2 (p=0.00125). There was also significant decrease in the levels of cholesterol (TC) , triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), with increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in Groups 4, 5 and 6, compared to Group 2 rats (p=0.00125). The results obtained from the rats of the group receiving extract were similar to that obtained from Groups 3. Conclusion: Thus, this study suggests that this extract could possibly normalize abnormalities in blood glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic conditions in a dose dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Annona muricata Linn leaves or Curcuma longa Linn Rhizomes Ameliorates Oxidative Stress Associated with Hypertension in Uninephrectomized Wistar Rats Daily Loaded with Sodium Chloride

Olayinka A. Oridupa, Folusho B. Falade, Ademola A. Oyagbemi, Bukola A. Abegunde, Precious C. Ekwem, Adedoyin Badmus, Temidayo O. Omobowale

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v26i430100

Aims: Oxidative stress sequel to hypertension exacerbates the clinical condition and accelerates associated organopathies, therefore prevention is important. Traditionally in Nigeria, hypertension is treated with Annona muricata L. leaves or Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, two medicinal plants with antioxidant properties.

Study Design:  This study assessed the effect of these plants on hypertension-induced oxidative stress in uninephrectomized Wistar rats daily loaded with 1% sodium chloride.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology Experimental Animal House, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between August and November 2017.

Methodology: Hypertensive rats were treated with methanol extracts of the plants for 42days. Two other groups of hypertensive rats were treated with lisinopril or chlorothiazide. Blood pressure was monitored by non-invasive tail plethysmography using an electro-sphygmomanometer. Oxidative stress markers were determined in blood and tissue (heart, kidney and liver); GPX, GST, GSH, SOD, MDA and NO.

Results: Treatment of uninephrectomized rats with A. muricata or C. longa significantly (p<0.0001) decreased blood pressure and MDA, while elevating enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms of GST, GSH, GPx and SOD, comparable to normotensive rats. NO, the ubiquitous molecule required for basal vascular tone, myocardial contractility regulation and platelet adhesion prevention, was restored in the extract-treated rats. However, hypertensive untreated rats showed evidence of oxidative damages with significant increase in MDA, especially in the heart and liver, with decreases in the antioxidant defense system.

Conclusion: Results of this study justified the traditional use of A. muricata or C. longa for management of hypertension in Nigeria and showed that the extracts ameliorated oxidative damage that accompanied hypertension, thus also preventing complications of hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pine Needle Mulch and Irrigation Frequency on the Yield of Origanum syriacum under Open Field Condition

El Hajj Abdel Kader, Marwa Nakhle, Vera Talj, Nour Taha, Soha Oleik, Maisaa Housein, Helen Rizk

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v26i430101

Due to the intensive harvest from natural habitat and increasing competition as a source of food, O. syriacum was introduced into cultivation and soon became one of the promising crops for many farmers in rural areas. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of pine needle mulch(PN) and irrigation frequency(IF) at 5, 10 and 15 days on the yield under open field conditions. The study was conducted at the Lebanese agricultural research institute (LARI) in Lebaa station (33°32.681′ North, 35°27.088′ East, 354 m a.s.l.), south Lebanon, province of Jizzin, under open field condition for two seasons during 2016. Treatments were organized in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results indicated a significant effect of mulch in both spring and fall seasons F (1, 172) = 59.34, p < .0001, η²=.24, F (1, 172) = 77.71, p < .0001, η²=.30 respectively. The two-way anova showed no significant effect of irrigation frequency on the average and total plant fresh weight (PFW) across two seasons F (2, 349) = .80, p= .4522, η²=.0038, F (2, 159) = 1.07, p= .3460, η²=.007 respectively. Very little variance of the plant fresh weight ,(0.2% – spring and 3.1 %- fall) was attributed to the interaction of mulch and irrigation frequency .In a comparison between percent weight contribution(PWC) of a different plant part, leaves formed the highest proportion (48.6%)  compared to the inflorescence and stem. The fresh weight of weeds(g/ m2 ) was significantly less in plots mulched with pine needles compared to the control (F(1,66)=24.43, p<.0001, η²=.75).

Applying pine needle mulch enhanced most of the yield parameters. Under calcareous clayey soil O. syriacum could be irrigated at10 or 15 days frequencies without remarkable decrease in the yield.