Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Assay of Aqueous Extracts of Selected Ethno-pharmacologic Alternatives Used by the Maasai Community of Narok, Kenya

Apollo O. Maima, Were L. L. Munyendo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/46227

Aims: Antimicrobial resistance motivates the search for new antimicrobials. Besides Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain has emerged worldwide over the last decade, posing a great challenge to healthcare. This paper reports a survey of Maasai ethno-pharmacy practices.

Study Design: Key informant interviews and utilization of e-questionnaires for data collection.

Methodology: Plants were identified, and the applicable parts taken as samples, dried, powdered then subjected to aqueous extraction. Using agar well diffusion method, the extracts were screened against gram positive, gram negative and fungal strains to establish antimicrobial activity.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the School of Pharmacy & Health Sciences of the United States International University, Africa in Nairobi from January 2017 to December 2018.

Results: Out of the 24 different plant samples collected, 33% were leaves while 17%, 12.5% and 37.5% were fruits, stem bark and roots, respectively. The highest extract percentage yields were from the leaves of Biden pilosa (5.11%), Psidium guajava (4.65%) and Tarchononthus comphoratus (4.31%). While the minimum extracts yields were from Solanum incum roots (0.08%) and stem bark (0.09%). The extracts of Toddalia asiatica stem bark and roots; Rhamnus staddo roots; Tarchonanthus camphoratus stem bark and roots; and Zanthroxyleum chelybeum stem bark, all exhibited well defined inhibition diameters against M.R.S. aureus in the range 8mm to 14mm as compared to the standard drug (10mm). All these were extracts of non-leafy samples. The significant antimicrobial activity corresponded to presence of flavonoids and alkaloids as seen on TLC plates during phytochemical screening.

Conclusion: The results obtained are a good rationale for utilization of the plants identified as alternatives to antibiotics for management of antimicrobial infections.

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Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimum on Blood Pressure, Some Electrolytes, Renal and Cardiac Biomarkers in 8% NaCl Induced Hypertensive Male Wistar Rats

O. B. Onyema-Iloh, S. C. Meludu, E. O. Iloh, C. E. Dioka, O. S. Usman, O. A. Onyegbule, E. B. Olugbenga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45379

Background: Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is a shrub belonging to the family of Lamiaceae. It is commonly called scent leaf or clove basil and it is found in many tropical countries. Studies have shown that the leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum possess medicinal properties.

Aim: The effect of methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood pressure, electrolytes, renal and cardiac biomarkers in 8% NaCl- induced hypertensive male Wistar rats.

Methodology: Forty Wistar rats (120-160) g were assigned to 5 groups of eight rats each. Group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 constitute the normal, hypertensive group, OG (200 mg/kg bwt) group, OG (400 mg/kg bwt) group and reference drugs (lisinopril, 30 mg/kg) group respectively. Group 3, 4 and 5 were given the extract and reference drug through oral gavage. All groups except group 1 were induced with 8% NaCl from 0-4weeks before treatment with OG and reference drug from 5-8 weeks.  Electrolytes and other biochemical parameters were assayed using standard methods.

Results: The phytochemical results revealed the presence of phenol, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytate, tannis and saponin. At 4 weeks (after induction), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum sodium, chloride, urea, and creatinine significantly (p<0.05) increased while serum potassium significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all the groups except group 1. At 8 weeks, after treatment with OG (200 mg/kgbwt), OG (400 mg/kgbwt) and lisinopril (30 mg/kg), SBP, DBP, serum sodium, chloride, urea, and creatinine significantly(p<0.05)  decreased while serum potassium significantly (p<0.05)  increased. Creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB however, were not significantly altered after the 4th and 8th week.

Conclusion: OG extract possesses an antihypertensive effect and enhances the proper functioning of the kidney. It may also be useful in hypertensive condition due to its nephroprotective effect at 200mg/kgbwt and 400 mg/kgbwt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Identification and Comparative In-vitro Anti-Oxidant Studies of Aqueous, Ethanol and Methanol Rootbark Extracts of Simarouba glauca DC (Paradise Tree)

SD. E. Osagie-Eweka, M. E. Okosun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39220

Aims: The study was conducted to determine the presence of selected phytochemicals and in-vitro antioxidant potency of aqueous, ethanol and methanol rootbark extracts of Simarouba glauca. Study Design: True experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, between July and August 2017.

Methodology: Rootbark of the plant was harvested from a private farm at Ubiaja, Esan south-east part of Edo State, air dried, pulverized and extracted with water, ethanol or methanol solvents and freeze-dried to obtain respective fractions of extracts. An alkaloid, total phenol, tannins and Flavonoid content of rootbark extracts were evaluated by established standard experimental methods and principles. DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity, total antioxidant activity, hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity were also evaluated based on established standard methods and principles.

Results: Alkaloids and flavonoids were observed in aqueous, ethanol and methanol rootbark extracts; flavonoid was, however, absent in the aqueous fraction. Total phenols and tannin were absent in all fraction. DPPH radical scavenging activity of aqueous, ethanol or methanol fraction extracts recorded no values at 50% inhibition concentration (IC50); although the extracts demonstrated the anti-DPPH radical effect at lower inhibitory concentrations, while BHT recorded an IC50 of 18 µg. Reducing power activity of aqueous, ethanol or methanol fraction at IC50 was 11 µg, 10 µg and 11 µg respectively while BHT was 11 µg. The total antioxidant activity of aqueous, ethanol or methanol rootbark extracts at IC50 are 23, 21 and 58 µM FeSO4 equivalent/µg of Fe2+ liberated respectively relative to 388 µM FeSO4 equivalent/µg of Fe2+ liberated by BHT. Hydroxyl free radical activity of aqueous, ethanol and methanol fraction at IC50 was 11 µg, 100 µg and 11 µg respectively while BHT was 11 µg. ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of aqueous, ethanol or methanol fraction extracts at IC50 was 29 µg, 25 µg and 34 µg respectively whereas BHT was 21 µg. Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of aqueous, ethanol or methanol fraction extracts at IC50 was 14 µg, 14 µg and 14 µg respectively whereas Quercetin was 16 µg. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Quercetin was utilized as standard antioxidant.

Conclusion: The outcome of the research study revealed that the aqueous, methanol and ethanol rootbark extracts of Simarouba glauca possess significant phytochemicals and antioxidant potency, although, the methanol fraction appears to be more effective against investigated radicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxic Activity of Tinospora bakis (Irg al-hagar) Roots in Wistar Albino Rats

Hayat M. Farah, Hassan E. Khalid, Abdelrahim M. El Hussein, Halima Mohamed Osman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42694

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the toxic effect of Tinospora bakis roots on body weight, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology on rats.

Methodology: Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, each of 6. For sub chronic toxicity, the aqueous extract was administered orally at a dose of 50, 500 and 2000 mg/ kg -for four weeks- to group 2, 3 and 4, respectively whereas Group 1 was kept as a control. Clinical signs and mortality were observed daily. The weights of the animals were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected for hematology and biochemistry analysis. Specimens of liver and kidney were kept in 10% formalin for histopathology.

Results: The results revealed that all animals in the four groups survived, and no mortality was recorded. The body weights of the animals increased in group 2 and 3, decreased in group 4. The extract had no adverse effects on hematology, biochemistry and histology of rats at doses of 50 and 500 mg/ kg, but caused significant alteration at dose 2000 mg/kg. White blood cells (WBCs) were significantly (P<0.05) increased; Red blood cells (RBCs), Hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Total protein and albumin were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased whereas Urea, creatinine, Alanin Transaminase (ALT), Asparate Transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated. These findings correlated with histopathological changes on liver and kidney.

Conclusion: The low doses of T. bakis aqueous extract were not toxic, but the high dose cause hepato-renal toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenols, Flavonoids and LCMS Profile of Chamaecrista hildebrandtii (Vatke) Lock and Clerodendrum rotundifolium (Oliv.)

Rechab S. Odhiambo, Patrick G. Kareru, Erastus K. Mwangi, Daniel W. Onyango

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v26i330093

Aims: The purpose of the study was to determine the antioxidant activity, quantify total phenols and total flavonoids and characterize the secondary metabolites present in methanolic extracts of Chamaecrista hildebrandtii and Clerodendrum rotundifolium using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Methodology: The total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. The secondary metabolites present in the methanolic leaves extracts were evaluated using LC-MS.

Results: The extracts of C. hildebrandtii showed a significantly higher antioxidant activity (IC50 = 8.7 mg/mL) compared to C. rotundifolium (IC50= 28.5 mg/mL). Both methanolic extracts of C. hildebrandtii and C. rotundifolium had common and different types of flavonoids such as quercetin, rutin, (+)-catechin 3-O-gallate and luteolin 6-C-glucoside among others that could be responsible for the observed antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content of C. hildebrandtii (1.33±0.07 mg/g tannic acid equivalents) was significantly higher than that of C. rotundifolium (0.25±0.00 mg/g tannic acid equivalents). However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in total flavonoid content of C. hildebrandtii (2.69±0.33 mg/g catechin equivalents) and C. rotundifolium (2.36±0.16 mg/g catechin equivalents).

Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that the good antioxidant activity exhibited by C. hildebrandtii may probably have been brought about by various secondary metabolites functioning in synergy.