Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Potentials of Aqueous and Hydro-Ethanol Extracts of Citrullus colocynthis L Fruit on Hyperglycemia and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Marlyse Solange Leng, Mahamat Bahar Imran, Valère Soh Oumbe, Inocent Gouado, Robert Ndjouenkeu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44792

Aims: This study was carry out to determine the dose effect of aqueous and hydro-ethanol C. colocynthis fruit extracts on some properties and serum biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Random trial.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Douala-Cameroon. Faculty of Science. Laboratory of Biochemistry, between April 2017 and June 2017.

Methodology: Forty two albino male rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinus), aged 2 to 3 months and weighing 150- 200 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly distributed into 7 experimental groups of six rats each. One group was used as healthy control and diabetes was induced in the 6 others groups by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan monohydrate into tail veins. Five diabetic groups received oral glibenclamide (3mg/kg), 50 and 100 mg/kg bw of aqueous or hydro-ethanol fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis respectively The remaining group was assigned as diabetic control rats. Body weight and serum biochemical parameters (glucose, lipids, transaminases and creatinine) were recorded weekly during 3 weeks.

Results: Diabetes induction of with alloxan significantly (p = .05) increases blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine blood level. Treatment of rats with hydro-ethanol extract (100 mg/kg.bw) steadily reduces (80.44%) glycemia but cause a significant increase of the liver relative mass, AST (138.38 IU/l) and ALT (152.35 IU/l) blood levels (p = .05). Administration of 50 mg/kg bw hydro-ethanol and aqueous extracts significantly reduce the glucose (22-46.44%), triglycerides, total cholesterol, transaminases and creatinine blood levels (72 to 85 %) (p = .05).

Conclusion: The administration of glibenclamide (3mg/kg), 50 and 100 mg/kg bw aqueous extracts and 50 mg/kg bw hydro ethanol extracts significantly reversed the damage associated with Alloxan induced diabetes close to the normal. The dose of 100 mg/kg bw hydro ethanol extracts should be avoided because of it toxic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

13C NMR Analysis: Terpenoids, Steroids and Carotenoid from Diospyros soubreana (Ebenaceae)

Boué Guy Blanchard, Kabran Aka Faustin, Yapi Acafou Thierry, Assi Kouamé Mathias, Tomi Félix, Tonzibo Zanahi Félix

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45230

Phytochemical investigations on bark of trunks and leaves of Diospyros soubreana (Ebenaceae) led to the isolation and characterisation of nine molecules: one monocyclic sesquiterpenoid lactone (1), five pentacyclic triterpenes (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6), two sterols (7 and 8) and one carotenoid alcohol (9), all isolated for the first time from this species. The structural elucidation of these compounds was carried out by 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phospholipase A2 Inhibition and Antiinflammatory Activity of F4 Fraction of Total Ethereal Leaf Extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae)

M. Sene, F. S. Barboza, A. Ndong, A. Sarr, A. Wele, E. Bassene, G. Y. SY

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45788

Annona senegalensis Pers. (ANNONACEAE) is a plant which is used in african traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of total ethereal leaf extract fractions of A. senegalensis. Compounds of methanolic fractions of ethereal leaf extract of A. senegalensis were separated by gel sephadex chromatography, in five fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5). Experiments were performed in acetic acid-induced contortions in mice, carrageenan rat paw edema and phospholipase A2 inhibitory test. The methanolic fraction of total ethereal leaf extract (10 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented the carrageenan inflammatory edema. The variation of edema is 22.31±3.35 %, 49.66±13.50 %, 52.10±10.02 % respectively at T1h, T3h and T5h. The increased edema after oral administration of F4 fraction administered at 300 µg/kg and 1 mg/kg per os is respectively 52.77±7.36 % and 33.81±6.94 %. The variation of edema in betamethasone group (1 mg/kg, per os) is 23.46±3.99 %. F4 fraction at 300 µg/kg, significantly inhibited 16.39 % of phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. F4 fraction (300 µg/kg, per os) also significantly prevented acetic acid-induced pain in mice. The number of abdominal contortions is 21 versus 72 in control group. F4 fraction compounds have a powerful analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity that involves phospholipase A2 inhibition, comparable to betamethasone profile on pain and inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Bark Hydroethanolic Extract of Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) Hochst and Its Fractions

Serigne Ibra Mbacke Dieng, Abdou Sarr, Alioune Dior Fall, Kady Diatta-Badji, William Diatta, Emmanuel Bassene

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45717

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenol content and the antioxidant capacity of the hydro-alcoholic bark extract of Piliostigma reticulatum and its ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous fractions.

Materials and Methods: Powdered barks were extracted with ethanol (80%). From the crude extract, 3 fractions were obtained after fractionation by column chromatography with three different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and water). The polyphenol content was determined with Folin Denis reagent. Antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assays.

Results: The total extract had higher polyphenol contents with 12.55 ± 0.12 mg tannic acid equivalent/ g of dried extract (TAE/g). For ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions, respective polyphenol content of 7.67 ± 0.4 - 9.01 ± 0.05 and 5.56 ± 0.2 mg TAE / g were obtained. The DDPH test had revealed that the methanol fraction was more active (IC50: 30.83±0.22 μg/ml), while for ABTS assay the ethyl acetate fraction had shown better activity (IC50: 29.08±0.44 μg/ml). For the FRAP test, at all tested concentrations, the methanol fraction revealed highest efficient to reduce ferric ion with percentages of reduction varing from 38 ± 0.73% at 7.81 μg/ml to 93.21 ± 0.24% at 250 μg/ml.

Conclusion: These studies showed that the methanol fraction exhibited the best antioxidant activity and that this activity may be related partially to its polyphenols content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study on Sand-Dune Based Medicinal Plants and Traditional Therapies in Coastal Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal, India

Uday Kumar Sen, Ram Kumar Bhakat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/46231

Aims: To document, highlight and provide baseline data to preserving traditional uses of sand dune based medicinal plant species.

Place and Duration of Study: Different villages of coastal Purba Medinipur district under West Bengal state in India, between March 2016 to April 2018.

Methodology: The ethnobotanical information was collected through semi-structured interviews and key informant discussion. The data was recorded in a data sheet with the names of the plant species, families, vernacular names, voucher number of plant specimens, habits, life span, flowering and fruiting seasons, Raunkiaer's life form and sub type, IUCN status, plant part (s) used, mode of administration, uses(s), fidelity level (FL) and use value (UV). Data were analyzed using informant consensus factors (ICF), UV and FL for each medicinal plant species used to cure various ailments.

Results: We documented 130 plant species showing “thero-chamaephytic” phytoclimate belonging to 49 families and 110 genera used for treating 21 human ailments, most of which were herbs. Most remedies were prepared in the form of decoction and used orally. The leaves were most frequently used plant parts. Dental ailments had the highest ICF 0.97, whereas analgesic uses had the lowest 0.5 ICF. Ochthochloa compressa had the highest FL (96.81%) being used for skin and wound healing and Acanthus volubilis had the lowest (3.33%) for the digestive and respiratory disorder.

Conclusions: ICF values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants associated with dental problems. FL or UV values indicated the more preferred plant species used in study areas. This preferred plant species might be prioritized for conservation and subjected to further studies related to the potential for future. Most of the medicinal plants of the region were collected in the wild and were often harvested for trade. Sustainable harvesting methods and domestication of the highly traded species were thus needed in the study areas.