Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) in Benin

Habib O. Adebo, Léonard E. Ahoton, Florent J. B. Quenum, Hubert Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Daouda O. Bello, Christophe A. A. M. Chrysostome

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/43897

Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) is an indigenous leafy vegetable which leaves are very rich in amino acid and essential minerals and they form part of the meals of people of Asia, Middle East and parts of Africa. The plant is also used as a medicine and source of income for local communities. The aim of this study is to highlight the ethnobotanical importance of Corchorus olitorius L. in Benin. To contribute to the enhancement of C. olitorius, 14 localities of Benin were visited and 129 people were interviewed, during the investigation. Data were collected about social and phytomedicinal uses of jute. These investigations have led to the understanding that C. olitorius is cultivated in all localities of Benin by both women (53.40%) and men (46.60%). The plant has a vernacular name in each local dialect but the term '' Ninuwi '' in the '' Fon '' language is the most used (33%). On the ethnomedicinal plan, it is used in the treatment of several pathologies such as malaria, typhoid fever, heart disease, infantile malnutrition, etc. Various parts of the plant are used: leaves, roots, leafy stems and seeds, to prepare several drug recipes. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) followed by Ascending Hierarchical Classification (AHC) revealed that the organs of the plant that are used as medicine vary from one ethnic group to another and that it is the aerial organs of the plant that are most often exploited as a drug. Decoction (92.59%) and maceration are the only ways of preparation listed in this survey. This survey revealed the importance of the jute on ethno medicinal, culinary and social plan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycaemic and Biochemical Effects of the Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Persea americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

C. C. Ejiofor, I. E. Ezeagu, M. Ayoola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41587

The increase in the prevalence, complications and cost effect of diabetes management necessitated the search for alternative treatment and a look into the anti-diabetic and biochemical effects of Persea americana seed extract on the liver of diabetic rats. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The anti-diabetic and biochemical effects of both the water and ethanol extracts of Persea americana (avocado pear) seed on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were investigated. The seeds were minced by means of a grater and dried to a constant weight in an oven at 50°C. It is then ground to powder. One hundred grams (100 g) of the sample was extracted with 1000 ml of both water and methanol using the maceration method. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator and the extracts stored at 4°C until use. The effects of different doses (200 mg/bw, and 300/bw) of both water and methanol extracts of P. americana seed on alloxan-induced  diabetic albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, insulin. The glucose level and weight of the rats were measured weekly for 21 days. The liver function tests of the rats were investigated. Results of study showed that the extract possess a significant anti-diabetic effect for both extracts (P < 0.05). However, when compared within the experimental groups, the rats treated with ethanol extracts of P. americana seed showed a better anti diabetic effect. The liver function enzyme parameters showed no significant difference (P> 0.05) and reversed the increased liver function parameters that occurred in alloxan-induced albino diabetic untreated rats, comparable to the effects of insulin. In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of P. americana seeds extracts in the management of Diabetes Mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-obesity Potentials of Phenolic-Rich Fraction of Solanum aethiopicum L. and Solanum macrocarpon L on Diet-induced Obesity in Wistar Rats

Kemi Feyisayo Akinwunmi, Ibukun Olamide Ajibola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45742

Antiobesity effect of phenolic rich fractions of fresh fruits of Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum macrocapon on cafeteria diet (CD)-induced obesity was investigated using Wistar rats to explore the potential of S. macrocapon and S. aethiopicum in the management of obesity. Phenolic-rich extracts (free and bound phenolics) were obtained from S. macrocapon and S. aethiopicum by extraction with 80% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate respectively. Obesity was induced in Wistar rats with CD for 42 days after which they were treated with phenolic-rich extracts of S. aethiopicum and S. macrocapon at 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW for six weeks. Body weights and blood glucose were monitored weekly. Lipid profiles (Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C) and Low Density Lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C)), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, atherogenic coefficient (AC) and cardiac risk ratio (CRR) were estimated in the plasma. Treatment with phenolic-rich extracts of S. macrocapon and S. aethiopicum caused decrease in lee index, atherogenic coefficient, blood glucose level, plasma TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c,  ALT, AST, AC, CRR and increase in HDL-c, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin concentrations relative to  the obese rats. Conclusively, the phenolic-rich extracts of S. macrocapon and S. aethiopicum possess antiobesity potential and could be employed in the management of obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Mentha spicata

Heba Abdel-Hady, Eman Ahmed El-Wakil, Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45751

Aims: Mentha spicata medicinal properties are well known. In this study, Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Mentha spicata were determined as well as evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of it. Also, the identification of some bioactive compounds in the plant was analysed.

Place and Duration of Study: Extraction and antioxidant at Medicinal Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, cytotoxic evaluation and GC-Ms analysis at Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

Methodology: The antioxidant activity was determined by two methods, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2-2՝azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) while, the cytotoxic assay was determined by MTT assay on HepG-2 (Human hepatocellular carcinoma) and MTC-116 (Human colon carcinoma). Regarding to the chemical identification of methanol extract was carried out by GC-MS analysis.

Results: The study proved that Mentha spicata has high Total phenolic and flavonoid contents (388.20±2.38mg GAE/gm of extract &204.01±17.93mg RE/gm of extract) respectively. Also, exhibited promising antioxidant activity by DPPH & ABTS (IC50=65.13±1.29 µg/ml & 52.31±0.81 µg/ml) respectively. The methanol extract of the plant showed a good cytotoxic effect on HepG2 and HTC-116 (IC50=25.2±3.6µg/ml & 62.1±4.9µg/ml) respectively. GC-MS analysis of the methanol extract of Mentha spicata showed 43 oxygenated hydrocarbon compounds. The major ones are Hexadecanoic acid, methylEster (palmitic acid ester) (31.51%) followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,methyl ester (CAS)(methyl linolenate) (22.10%), 2-Pentadecanone,6,10,14-trimethyl- (CAS)(6.82%), Phytol (6.20%), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid(Z,Z)-, methyl ester (6.18%), Hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid ) (5.95%) and Methyl stearate (4.49%).

Conclusion: Mentha spicata is a potential antioxidant and anticancer agents.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Liver Problems in Ethiopia

Belachew Garedew, Behailu Bizuayehu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/38153

Traditional medicinal plants are used for human ailments treatment throughout the world primary health care need practiced typically liver problems by indigenous medical practitioners. This review was employed with the objective of compiling and documenting ethnobotanical studies on the use of medicinal plants, associated with the treatment of liver problems from different ethnic groups in Ethiopia. By using published and unpublished research articles, a total of 46 journals meeting inclusion criteria were used for analyzing and compiling this review literature.  The ethno-medicinal use of 114 plant species belonging to 90 genera and 50 families were reported and documented from eight regions of Ethiopia. The highest family in terms of species number was Euphorbiaceae accounts 13 (11.4%) species and followed by Asteraceae 12 (10.53%) species and Fabaceae 10 (8.77%) species. Herbs were dominant habit 48(42.11%) followed by shrubs 33 (28.95%). Most of the medicinal plant species (52.7%) were collected from the wild. The most frequently cited plant species were Justicia schimperiana 9 (12.5%) followed by Phytolacca dodecandra 8 (11.11%), Croton macrostachyus 7 (9.72%). The most frequently utilized plant parts for treatment of liver disease was root (24.78%) followed by leaf (23.89 %). The medicinal plant preparations were administered via oral gavage or Oral route of administration was employed for the medicinal plant preparations most commonly used route of application 99 (88.39%) followed by dermal and oral 4 (3.57%) and dermal application 3 (2.68%). The healers used different method of preparation for application such as crushing, concoction, decoction, chewing, powdering, etc. This review indicated that the liver problem is common disease in Ethiopia. Adapting a recommended diagnostic and treatment using physical diagnosis by indigenous healers/ practitioners attempted curing liver problem implementing prevention and control policies in the general population needs an urgent attention in the country.