Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Seed Pelleting on Physiological Seed Quality Improvement in Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) the Endangered Medicinal Tree

B. Venudevan, P. Srimathi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v25i415479

Aim: Bael is an endangered medicinal tree with multipurpose utility propagated through seeds. Hence attempts were to improve the vigour of the seed through seed pelleting with ecofriently organic products.

Study Design: A Factorial completely randomized design (FCRD) for laboratory experiments and RBD for nursery studies with five replication with five replications.

 Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory and nursery experiment was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2012-13.

Methodology: The seeds were pelleted with botanical leaf powders viz., karisilanganni (Eclipta prostrate), avaram (Cassia auriculata), arappu (Albizia amara), neem (Azadirachta indica), biofertilizers viz., azophos, phosphobacteria and biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens along with unpelleted seeds.

Results: The results showed that among the treatments arappu pelleting enhanced the germination (76%) and seedling quality characters viz., root length (13.0 cm), shoot length (9.9 cm), dry matter production (318 mg) and vigour index (1740) compared to control followed by neem and phosphobacteria pelleting. The treatment scored as best also performed better at polypot nursery.

Conclusion: Our data show that arappu pelleting enhanced seed quality compared to control

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diabetic Activity of Convallatoxin Isolated from the Root Bark of Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock (Asclepiadaceae)

Kolade Olatubosun Faloye, Marcus Durojaye Ayoola, Bamidele Martin Amos-Tautua, Samson Oluwaseyi Famuyiwa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/45129

This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of the root bark extract of Parquetina nigrescens and the isolated compound, convallatoxin, from the root bark. A powdered sample of the plant was extracted with methanol, and the extract (A) was tested in glucose-loaded normal rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the determination of the most active dose. The anti-diabetic activity of A at 200 mg/kg was carried out on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A was further partitioned to obtain its n-hexane (B1), dichloromethane (B2), ethyl acetate (B3) and mother liquor (B4) fractions that were tested for blood glucose lowering activity using glucose-loaded normal rats model. The anti-diabetic activity of the isolated compound from B3 was carried out on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results were subjected to one way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests and p< 0.05 was considered significant. A showed dose-independent and time dependent blood glucose level reduction activity at 200 mg/kg with the highest percentage of 30% at 4 h that was comparable to the standard, glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg. A at 200 mg/kg showed a blood glucose level reduction of 49, 68 and 70% by Day 4, 7 and 10 respectively as against glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg of 18, 33 and 39% by Day 4, 7 and 10 respectively on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. B3 showed a time-dependent blood glucose level reduction activity up to the fourth hour similar to glibenclamide with 35% as against 38% of glibenclamide. B1, B2 and B4 were devoid of blood glucose level reduction activity. Convallatoxin isolated from B3 gave 83 % blood glucose levels reduction at day 10 as against 38% of glibenclamide. The anti-diabetic activity of convallatoxin was significantly (p<0.05) more than glibenclamide at all-time point. The structure of convallatoxin was determined using IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and the spectroscopic data compared well with published data in the literature. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antiviral Potential of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Enantia chlorantha Oliver (Annonaceae) and Boswellia dalzielii Hutch (Burseraceae) against Newcastle Disease In Ovo

T. L. Ohemu, A. Agunu, S. C. Chollom, V. A. Okwori, D. G. Dalen, P. N. Olotu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44919

Aim of the Study: To determine the phytochemicals and the antiviral activity of methanol stem bark extract of Enantia chlorantha and Boswellia dalzielii against Newcastle disease virus in embryonated eggs.

Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methods. Investigation on the effect of stem bark of Enantia chlorantha and Boswellia dalzielii methanol  extracts against Newcastle disease (ND) virus was carried out using an in ovo assay. Nine–day-old embryonated chicken eggs were used. 0.2ml New Castle Disease virus (NDV) pre-treated with methanol extract of Enantia chlorantha Oliver and Boswellia dalzielii Hutch (Stem bark) at final concentrations of 150, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 mg/ml were administered. Controls were included, embryos were observed daily for survival. Allantoic fluids from treated eggs were collected for spot test and haemagglutination test to detect NDV in the eggs.

Results: Phytochemical analysis carried out on Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (stem bark),  revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides,  steroid, triterpenes and glycosides, while tannin and flavonoids were found to be absent. Boswellia dalzielii Hutch revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids and absence of alkaloid.The result of the antiviral assay showed that the minimum toxic concentration of both extracts is 150 mg/ml. Boswellia dalzielii showed the most significant activity against NDV with complete survival of the embryo at all concentration studied and complete clearance of the virus from the allantoic fluid, as compared to Enantia chlorantha where mortalities were seen at 150 and 25 mg/ml respectively.

Conclusion: This finding has clearly demonstrated that Enantia chlorantha and Boswellia dalzielii stem bark extract has antiviral potential against NDV in ovo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Essential Oil of Croatian Salvia brachyodon Vandas

Mirjana Skočibušić, Sandra Lacić

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44821

Backgraund: This study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical profile and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Salvia brachyodon Vandas growing wild in Croatia. Short tooth sage (S. brachyodon Vandas),an endemic species that grows in the south east areas of the Adriatic coast in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. It is a perennial plant that grows up to 70-80 cm in height and flowers from July to September.

Methodology: The phytochemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a panel of representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. The antimicrobial activities of the oil against pathogenic microorganisms were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods.

Results: From the thirty-eight identified constituents representing 95.7% of the oil, 1,8-cineole (16.7%), β-pinene (19.7%) and α-pinene (7.6%), were the major components. The levels of oxygenated monoterpenes such as camphor (5.6%), borneol (4.2%), myrtenol (2.4 %) and terpinen-4-ol were significant. Other important compounds were sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (6.6%), α-humulene (4.9%), viridiflorol (3.0%), spathulenol (2.9%) and aromadendrene. Preliminary antimicrobial screening revealed that the oil exhibited a very interesting antimicrobial profile. The oil exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial activity after it was tested against twenty pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains, but high antimicrobial activity observed against medically important pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans.

Conclusion: Results presented here may suggest that the essential oil of S. brachyodon possess antimicrobial properties, and is, therefore, a potential source of antimicrobial ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industry. The obtained results are preliminary and a further research is needed in order to obtain information regarding the practical effectiveness of essential oil to prevent the growth of foodborne and spoilage microbes under specific application conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Mechanistic Assays of Tetracyclic Iridoid Compounds Isolated from Morinda lucida Benth in Leishmania species

Faustus Akankperiwen Azerigyik, Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Thelma Tetteh, Frederick Ayertey, Ama Nyamekye Antwi, Kofi Baffour-Awuah Owusu, Kofi Kwofie Dadzie, Georgina Isabella Djameh, Mark Tetteh-Tsifoanya, Shiro Iwanaga, Alfred Ampomah Appiah, Tomoe Ohta, Takuhiro Uto, Yukihiro Shoyama, Nobuo Ohta, Theresa Manful Gwira, Mitsuko Ohashi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44972

Aims: This study investigates the activity of tetracyclic iridoid compounds against Leishmania spp. and the mechanism(s) of action.

Study Design: An experimental study.

Place and Duration: Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, between September 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of compounds against Leishmania donovani and L. major promastigotes were determined after 48 hours of incubation using the Alamar blue. Cytotoxicity of compounds was determined against cell lines using MTT assay. The anti-amastigote activity of compounds was further assessed by DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining. The mechanism of cell death induced by compounds was determined using nexin assay. Mitosis, cytokinesis and morphometry were monitored by DAPI and Kinetoplastid Membrane Protein (KMP) staining. Cell cycle arrest induced by compounds was analyzed by FACS.

Results: Molucidin and ML-F52 inhibited the growth of promastigote in L. donovani (Molucidin; IC50 = 2.94±0.60 µM, ML-F52; IC50 = 0.91±0.50 µM) and L. major (Molucidin; IC50 = 1.85± 0.20 µM, ML-F52; IC50 = 1.77± 0.20 µM). ML-F52 had a 10-fold cytotoxic effect on parasites relative to normal cell lines. Against intracellular forms, Molucidin and ML-F52 inhibited intracellular amastigote replication and infectivity. Amphotericin B, Molucidin and ML-F52, induced a dose-dependent apoptotic effect on promastigotes. Although no change in KMP-11 expression was observed, iridoids inhibited cell division and morphological changes in promastigote cultures.  Molucidin and ML-F52 induced apoptotic mechanism of cell death, inhibited cytokinesis and induced phenotypic changes in promastigotes. Molucidin further induced ‘’nectomonad-like’’ forms and loss of kDNA, ML-F52 induced ‘cell-rounding’ with loss of flagellum. Molucidin also induced cell growth arrest at G2-M phase (54.5 %). A significant induction of apoptosis (P = .05) was shown by an enhanced peak in the sub-G1 confirming the apoptotic inducing properties of iridoids.

Conclusion: This study shows the anti-leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids which could be further investigated for the development of new chemotherapy against Leishmaniasis.