Open Access Short Research Article

Synergism of Phyllanthus niruni Extract with Gentamicin against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Md. Atikur Rahman, Mahfuza Marzan, Md. Anowar Khasru Parvez

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44442

Aims: This study aimed to find out any synergism of gentamicin with the solvent extracts of small tropical herb Phyllanthus niruri to combat methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Methodology: Bioactive constituents of Phyllanthus niruri were extracted by macerating ground dry powder of the leaves in water, n-hexane, chloroform, methanol and ethanol for 48-72 h followed by filtration and evaporation of solvents. Microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of these extracts. The synergistic effects between gentamicin and the extracts were evaluated by the checkerboard assay to calculate the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). In all cases, ten hospital associated MRSA strains were used.

Results: The MIC of aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. niruri against different MRSA strains varies from 3.125 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml. For the MRSA strain the combination of methanolic extract with gentamicin decreased the MIC of extract from 6.25 mg/ml to 0.2 mg/ml and the MIC of gentamicin from 2048 µg/ml to 256 µg/ml showing a strong synergistic effect with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.157. Steroids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and quinones identified in the extracts may play role in synergistic relation.

Conclusion: The present investigation shows that bioactive constituents from Phyllanthus niruri have an excellent synergy with gentamicin against MRSA and can be further explored as an alternative anti-staphylococcal agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relative Analysis of Gallic-Acid, Theobromine, Theophylline, and Caffeine Content among 12 Bangladeshi Tea Genotypes Using Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography

Junaite Bin Gias Uddin, Md. Abdul Aziz, Habiba ., Biswojit Debnath, Md. Abu Reza

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/44227

Aims: The tea industry is of great economic importance worldwide, owing to its possession of both food and medicinal values. Bangladesh is among the world-renowned tea exporting countries. However, the inadequate biochemical data for most cultivated Bangladeshi tea genotypes hinders its competitiveness on the world market. This is as a result of previous research mainly revolving around conventional breeding, mutagenesis, and polyploidization. This research aims to characterise the 12 Bangladeshi tea genotypes according to their biochemical content. Such information is inevitable in driving the demand and preference of these tea products on the world market.

Study Design: The study was designed based on relevant research articles and standard laboratory procedures.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was conducted at the Molecular Biology and Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh, from June 2015 to September 2016.

Methodology: Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the composition of different tea genotypes. A mixture of 999 ml de-ionised water & 1 ml TFA was used as buffer A, and 80% acetonitrile was used as buffer B in RPLC system.

Results: We found that all the 12 tea genotypes are rich in Theophylline, Theobromine, Gallic-Acid, and Caffeine content, but with varying quantities.

Conclusion: These results indicate that some of these tea genotypes can be used to produce the decaffeinated tea, a newly introduced tea product on the market that is on high demand. To ascertain the diversity of chemical composition among the various tea genotypes, biochemical characterisation of other Bangladeshi tea genotypes should be performed. Such data will enhance the market value and demand for Bangladeshi tea on the world market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic and Renal Biochemical Profile of Albino Rats Exposed to Chloroform and Methanol Leaf Extracts of Portulaca oleracea Linn.

Victoria C. Obinna, Hope D. Kagbo, Gabriel O. Agu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/43846

Portulaca oleracea Linn.  is among the medicinal plants used globally in the treatment of diseases and management of health challenges. The dearth of information on the long term effect of Portulaca oleracea on hepatic and renal toxicity prompted this study. The study investigated the subchronic effect of the oral administration of chloroform leaf extracts of Portulaca oleracea (CLEPO) and methanol leaf extracts of Portulaca oleracea (MLEPO) on plasma activity of some enzymes (ALT, ALP & AST) and levels of other biochemical parameters such as blood electrolytes, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine in male albino rats. One hundred and twelve (112) animals were randomly divided into seven (7) groups of sixteen (16) rats each. Group A (Control) received 0.5ml/kg of 20% Tween 80 (vehicle), Groups B, C & D received 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg of CLEPO respectively and Groups E, F & G received 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg of MLEPO respectively for 60 days. On days 14, 28, 42 and 60; four rats from each group were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for plasma biochemical assay. MLEPO caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma AST and ALP level while CLEPO significantly (p<0.05) decreased the plasma AST level. MLEPO produced a highly significant (p<0.01) reduction in both total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels as well as significant (p<0.05) decline in urea level. CLEPO produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease on conjugated bilirubin. Both extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced the chloride level. Oral administration of CLEPO and MLEPO over a 60 day period is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Cnestis ferruginea from Côte d’Ivoire on Male Rat Reproductive System

Zougrou N’guessan Ernest, Kouassi Kouadio Aubin, Tahiri Annick, Blahi Adélaïde Nadia Méa, Kouakou Koffi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/43492

Against growing male infertility in the world, investigations are undertaken to find new bioactive molecules. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea on the reproductive parameters of male rats. Indeed, 36 male rats were divided into 2 groups of 18 each and treated for 30 days (set I) and 60 days (set II). Each set was subdivided into three groups. Group 1 (control) received distilled water. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 50 (AECF50) and 100 (AECF100) mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea respectively. The results showed that extract induces significant increase in the wet weight of testis, seminal vesicles, epididymis, prostate and levator ani muscle as well as the dry weight of the latter. On the sperm parameters, the extract produced a significant increase in the number of motile spermatozoa, number of spermatozoa and number of normal spermatozoa. The extract also increased serum levels of pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and testosterone. Histological study showed that, Cnestis ferruginea induced significant increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter. In conclusion, the extract of Cnestis ferruginea could contain androgen-like substances capable of improving the fertility of male rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Distribution and Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Sapium ellipticum (Hochst.) Pax Leaf Extracts

O. M. Ighodaro, O. A. Akinloye, J. A. Popoola, S. A. Adebodun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejmp/2018/v25i315473

In this study, different extract fractions (aqueous, ethanol, methanol, hexane, diethyl ether and chloroform) of Sapium ellipticum (SE) leaf obtained by cold extraction method were screened for phytochemicals, and antimicrobial sensitivity. The percentage yield of extract was highest in methanol fraction (22.8%) and lowest in chloroform (3.64%). Flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides were collectively observed in the fractions. More phytochemicals were observed in ethanol fraction than other fractions. Quantitative estimation of the powdered leaf sample showed 10.8±0.54% flavonoids, 9.24±0.12% alkaloids, 7.26±1.01% tannins, 1.63±0.14% glycosides and 74.2±3.12mgGAE/g total phenols. Eight human pathogenic microbes (four bacteria, three fungi and yeast) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity of the different extract fractions using agar well diffusion method. A broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy was observed in the relatively more polar fractions (ethanol, methanol and aqueous), with ethanol having the highest potency (minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25-50 mgmL-1) on the microorganism strains for which the fractions were reactive. Conversely, the less polar fractions (diethyl ether, chloroform and hexane) were largely resisted by the microbial isolates. Only methanol and ethanol fractions were effective against yeast growth. Except for penicillin camemberti which was slightly sensitive to ethanol extract, the fungal isolates generally resisted the investigated fractions. Overall, findings from this study indicates that polar solvents extracts of Sapium ellipticum, particular ethanol fraction are rich in arrays of phytochemicals, and are capable of eliciting strong antibacterial activities, as much as 113-375% potency in comparison to Sensitive Disk Test (SDT) containing known antimicrobial drugs such as Ofloxacine (OFL), Gentamycin (GEN), Chloramphenicol (CHL), Ciprofloxacin (CIP)  and cephalexin (CXC).